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As the largest producer and 
consumer of designed goods and 
services in the world, the United 
States is committed to the highest 
standards of design excellence. 
Well-designed products, services, 
and communications bring 
economy, safety, ease, and 
beauty to our everyday lives. 
Design reaches into every sector 
of society and can even transform 
the way government works. 

By recognizing government 
agencies, federal employees, 
and private designers, the 
Presidential Design Awards 
promote awareness of the many 
ways design can make government 
better serve the American people. 
I commend the recipients of 
this year's awards for helping to 
enhance the quality of life in our 
nation. Your work exemplifies 
the ingenuity, creativity, and skill 
that has always defined the 
American spirit. 

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As America nears the third millennium, 
the nation and the world face unprec- 
edented change. Frequently compared 
to the Industrial Revolution, the trans- 
formation we are experiencing today is 
a source of profound threats as well as 
daunting opportunities. To succeed in 
this environment, we must anticipate, 
shape, and respond with innovative 
products, communications, services, 
facilities, and environments. Design is 
the key to helping us meet this chal- 
lenge. It is a strategic national resource 
whose full potential is yet to be realized: 

Economically, design can enhance 
our nation's prosperity and opportuni- 
ties for employment by improving the 
global competitiveness of U.S. products 
and services, streamlining the manufac- 
turing process, and creatively refining 
the interface between human beings and 

Environmentally, design is an 
essential element in providing a clean, 
safe, and sustainable environment, 
making contributions in such areas as 
recycling and pollution control as well 
as providing strategies for the wise long- 
term use of natural resources, land, 
infrastructure, and historic resources. 

Educationally, design is a tool for 
identifying problems, analyzing informa- 
tion, developing critical thinking skills, 
envisioning options, and communicat- 
ing solutions. The very process of design 
gives us the power to envision ideas from 
different perspectives while drawing 
inspiration from multiple disciplines. 

Socially, design can break down the 
physical and psychological barriers to 
full participation in society and open the 

way for a democratic and economic 
system that is truly inclusive. It does this 
by making products, communications, 
and environments universally accessible. 

The federal government is the nation's 
largest builder, printer, and user of 
design services and products. Ensuring 
that the federal government secures the 
best design is an integral part of respon- 
sible stewardship of public resources. 
Since the early 1970s, the Design Pro- 
gram of the National Endowment for the 
Arts has worked to keep good design at 
the forefront of federal activities through 
its Federal Design Improvement Pro- 
gram. In 1983 President Reagan estab- 
lished the Presidential Design Awards 
to encourage and recognize the design 
successes of federal agencies and to 
honor those individuals who have made 
outstanding contributions to federal 
design. In its second decade, the awards 
program has established itself as a bea- 
con for design excellence in the federal 

The Presidential Design Awards are 
administered by the National Endow- 
ment for the Arts and are presented 
every four years. The program includes 
two levels of awards: Federal Design 
Achievement A wards are merit awards 
given by the National Endowment for 
the Arts as its highest recognition of 
quality design; and Presidential Awards 
for Design Excellence are presented 
by the President of the United States 
for design of the highest quality in 
accordance with international stand- 
ards. This book recognizes the winners 
of the fourth round of awards. 



For design excellence to be achieved, 
design must be integrated into the 
product development process from the 
beginning, rather than being tacked on 
at the end as superficial styling. As a 
recognition of the connection between 
the process and the results, the Presi- 
dential Design Awards program salutes 
federal achievements in both design 
products and design activities in the 
areas of architecture, landscape architec- 
ture, urban design and planning, his- 
toric preservation, interior design, 
engineering and energy conservation, 
industrial and product design, and 
graphic design. Design products include 
completed and implemented design 
works in any of these eight categories. 
Products are the tangible results of a 
design process such as a building, 
landscape, bridge, dam, exhibit, or 
poster. Design activities include admin- 
istrative or management programs, 
processes, and policies that develop, 
foster, or sustain design excellence such 
as design awards programs, research 
and educational activities, master plans, 
or design guidelines. Activities provide 
opportunities to institutionalize good 
design practices and achieve consistent 
design excellence, rather than focusing 
on one-time achievements. They em- 
phasize the collaborative and interdisci- 
plinary nature of design and provide a 
framework for approaching design 

All federal employees and federal 
contractors, state and local govern- 
ments, and nonprofit organizations are 
invited to participate in the Presidential 
Design Awards program. The principal 
requirement is that the work entered 
was authorized, commissioned, 
produced, or supported by the federal 
government and was completed within 
ten years before the call for entries. 

Round Four focused on works 
completed and in use between June 1, 
1984, and June 1, 1994. It involved four 
juries of private sector design experts 
reviewing 420 entries from more than 
90 federal entities. The juries focused 
on four broad areas of design: architec- 
ture and interior design; graphic design 
and product/industrial design; landscape 
architecture, urban design and planning; 
and engineering. They selected 75 
projects to receive Federal Design 
Achievement Awards. Of these, nine 
were recommended to receive Presiden- 
tial Awards for Design Excellence. 

The criteria which guided the awards 
jury in making its selection were: 

Purpose. The undertaking must have 
made a contribution that improved the 
federal government's ability to fulfill its 

Leadership. The undertaking must 
have established exemplary design 
practices, standards, or guidelines that 
can serve as models for federal and 
private sector design activities. 

Cost. The undertaking should have 
been cost-efficient on an environmental 
and life-cycle basis and should have 
demonstrated careful design and plan- 
ning without sacrificing performance 
or quality. 

Aesthetics. The undertaking must 
have demonstrated aesthetic sensibility 
and have been appropriate in image, 
form, and context. 

Performance. The undertaking 
must have demonstrated a high level of 
technical and functional proficiency in 
all aspects of performance. 

This book honors the 75 award-winning 
projects by highlighting the elements of 
good design and discussing the benefits 
that federal agencies, the nation, and its 
peoples receive from well-designed 
buildings, landscapes and urban spaces, 
interiors, communications, products, 
and services. Many of the winning 
projects demonstrate how good design 
is the result of a collaborative, interdisci- 
plinary process, often involving citizens 
and consumers, and how it can help us 
expand our creative potential and learn 
to appreciate our built and natural 

The award-winning projects and 
those individuals responsible for creat- 
ing, administering, and advocating these 
works demonstrate that excellence can 
flourish in the federal environment. The 
achievements of those honored in the 
pages that follow will serve as an inspira- 
tion and guide for excellence in federal 
design activities. The President, the 
National Endowment for the Arts, and 
the awards jury congratulate and com- 
mend the member c of the federal design 
community who work hard to secure 
our nation's prosperity and quality of 
life through good design. 

Donlyn Lyndon (chair) 
Principal, Lyndon/Buchanan 
Associates, Berkeley, California 


Architecture and 
Interior Design 

Graham Gund (chair) 

President, Graham Gund Architects, 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Beverly Russell 

President, Beverly Russell Enterprises, 
New Paltz, New York 

Adele Naude Santos 

Principal, Adele Naude Santos 

and Associates, San Diego, California 

Dr. Sharon E. Sutton 

Professor of Architecture, 
University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Jane Thompson 

Principal, Thompson and Wood, Inc., 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Cynthia Weese 

Dean, School of Architecture, 
Washington University, 
St. Louis, Missouri 

Amy Weinstein 

Principal, Weinstein Associates, 
Architects, Washington, DC 

Graphic Design and 
Product/Industrial Design 

Richard Saul Wurman (chair) 
Chairman, Technology, Education, 
Design (TED) Conferences, 
Newport, Rhode Island 

Bryce Ambo 

Principal, Bryce Ambo Graphic Design, 
Arlington, Massachusetts 

Robert Brunner 

Director of Industrial Design, 

Apple Computer, Cupertino, California 

Matthew Carter 

Principal, Carter 8c Cone Type, Inc., 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Nancye Green 

Partner, Donovan &: Green, 
New York, New York 

Richard Poulin 

Principal, Richard Poulin 
Design Group Inc., 
New York, New York 

Patrick Whitney 

Director, Institute of Design, 
Illinois Institute of Technology, 
Chicago, Illinois 

Lorraine Wild 

Partner. Re Verb, 

Los Angeles, California 

Landscape Architecture, 
Urban Design and Planning 

Everett L. Fly (chair) 

Principal, E.L. Fly 8c Associates, Inc., 

San Antonio, Texas 

Michael Barker 

Executive Director, 

American Planning Association. 

Washington, DC 

Catherine Brown 

Senior Fellow, Design Center 
for American Urban Landscape, 
University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 


Guy Nordenson (chair) 
Founding Principal. Ove Amp 8c 
Partners, New York, New York 

Joseph P. Colaco 

Partner-in-Charge. CBM Engineers. Inc., 
Houston, Texas 

Virginia Fairweather 

Editor-in-Chief. Civil Engineering. 
New York, New York 

Joe Passonneau 

Principal, Joseph Passonneau &: Partners. 
Washington. DC 

I Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 
Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 


Focus: HOPE 
Center for Advanced 

Detroit, Michigan 

The vision of Focus: HOPE Center for 
Advanced Technologies (CAT) was to 
take an abandoned fragment of an indus- 
trial city and transform it into a symbol 
of progress and a gateway into a better 
life. The CAT has turned a lifeless 50- 
year-old Ford engine plant, in a section 
of Detroit where the unemployment and 
labor dropout rate averages 45 percent, 
into a state-of-the-art, computer-inte- 
grated manufacturing and learning 
center. Only modest changes have been 
made to the outside of the building, 
but the interior incorporates the latest 
manufacturing technology suited for 
low-volume, high-skill production. The 
factory floor is organized into six neigh- 
borhoods composed of high-tech manu- 
facturing cells producing one or more 
products. People and materials move 
through the neighborhoods on "streets" 
while utilities are delivered via sub-floor 
"alleys." The visual focus of each neigh- 
borhood is a power tower with services 
and mechanical equipment on the 
ground and third floors and a training/ 
conference room in between. 

The three-story office block in front 
of the manufacturing floor has been 
remodeled to include an electronic 
library, learning center, meeting rooms, 
cafeteria and visitors platform projecting 
into the factory. A new central stair with 
a large window connects the second and 
third floors and symbolically opens the 

factor)' - with its new jobs and careers - 
to the people living in the surrounding 
area. More pragmatically, the plant has 
been thoroughly insulated and employs 
a cogeneration strategy to reduce energy 
consumption significantly. Hands-free 
amenities such as sliding doors, ambient 
lighting and drinking fountains help 
deliver the message that this facility 
looks to the future. 

In an era when industry is moving to 
the suburbs, exacerbating urban sprawl 
and dispersing jobs, this project demon- 
strates the viability of rehabilitating 
older inner-city factories and communi- 
ties. The CAT maintains its exterior as 
a reminder of the factory that discarded 
the neighborhood, while inside, the 
dramatic design matches the vitality of 
the program and confirms the potential 
of its workers to contribute to this 
country's industrial rebirth. It embodies 
two essential elements of any living 
community - continuity and change. 
In the final analysis, this is a facility that 
makes a profound statement about 
human empowerment. 


Department of Commerce, 

Economic Development Administration, 

Chicago Regional Office 

Focus: HOPE 

Smith Him Iimkui & Grylls Associates, Inc. 


The Byron White 

United States Courthouse 

Denver. Colorado 

Courthouses are no ordinary buildings. 
They embody die two great distin- 
guishing characteristics of democracy - 
equality and justice. Their design must 
be "of the time", able to relate to every 
citizen, and "for all times", inspiring a 
sense of respect and civic responsibility 
in each generation. The Byron White 
United States Courthouse, as a result of 
the commitment of the General Services 
Administration (GSA) and the imagina- 
tive intervention of its designers, epito- 
mizes what a courthouse should and can 
be in America. 

The preservation of this early 20th 
century courthouse illustrates a strategy 
which combines a deep respect for the 
past with the thoughtful integration of 
new spaces for new uses. Built from 1910 
to 1916 as the Federal Courthouse/Post 
Office, the 244,000 square-foot structure 
became known as "The Mile High City's 
grandest Neoclassical Structure". Its 
Renaissance Revival interior was espe- 
cially noteworthy for its abundant natu- 
ral light, most evident in its massive 
skylights and interior courtyard. How- 
ever, despite this rich design heritage, 
by the late 1980s, the grandeur and 
natural light had been eclipsed by layers 
of insensitive remodeling. So much 
of the original architecture had been 
destroyed or compromised that, when 
the need for new court facilities arose, 
serious consideration was given to 
building a new courthouse. Instead, 
at the urging of a Judges' Restoration 
Committee, GSA acquired the derelict 
building in 1988 with the goal of 

restoring it to serve the needs of a 21st 
century judiciary. 

The architects used generous vol- 
umes and natural light, as well as classic 
proportions and simplified details to 
recreate the original spirit of the build- 
ing. The exterior was completely 
cleaned, with minimal repairs to the 
marble in order to preserve as much 
of the original fabric as possible. The 
former post office lobby, now called the 
Grand Hall, was restored. The main 
corridor of the second floor, which had 
been reduced to a fluorescent five-foot 
corridor in the 1960s, was restored to its 
original proportions, lit once again by 
the natural light of the interior courtyard 
and by recreations of the original cast 
bronze sconces. 

All five courtrooms are new, even 
the Ceremonial En Banc Courtroom 
centered in what was once the main post 
office work area. Although the massive 
sky lights are not visible, light from them 
suffuses the translucent panels. 

At a cost of $1 15 per square foot, the 
building has the same estimated useful 
life as new courthouses currently being 
built at $200 per square foot. Currently 
valued at $200 million or $820 per 
square foot, the Byron White Court- 
house is proof that good design is good 
business, increasing the economic value 
of our federal assets while enriching our 
communities and our national spirit. 


General Services Administration, 
Rocky Mountain Region 

Michael Barber Architecture 




United States 
Holocaust Memorial 

Washington, DC 

The United States Holocaust Memorial 
Museum represents one of those rare 
moments in architecture where stone, 
steel, glass and other materials used in 
the fahri cation of a building are trans- 
formed into an experience that must be 
described as "transcendent." Here 
design becomes a bridge linking history- 
to the present, melding cold and horrify- 
ing facts with overwhelming emotions 
and presenting a challenge to respect 
and treasure the diversity- of humankind. 

Located on a mid-block site just 
south of the Mall in Washington, DC, 
the museum's massing, limestone and 
brick facades, and references to neoclas- 
sicism are appropriate to the scale and 
style of federal buildings that surround 
it. While the building acknowledges its 
context, it also disengages itself from the 
institutional urban fabric. The east 
facade is hallmarked with a dramatic 
stone screen that moves in a great arc 
onto the sidewalk. The west facade has a 
plaza to welcome visitors. A grand 
hexagonal pavilion off to one side con- 
trasts with the brick towers and glass- 
enclosed catwalks on the other side. 

The entry- point is the three-story 
Hall of Witness where a stair cuts into 
the space on a diagonal, a trussed sky- 
light wraps overhead, and industrial 
metal braces and vents disconcert with- 

out literally- recreating a particular Holo- 
caust site. The overall intent is clear, but 
those who enter this hall and the exhibits 
that unfold in a sequence of bright and 
dark, tall and low chambers, catwalks 
and towers that follow, are prompted to 
interpret this as personal experiences 
rather than as a prescribed recounting 
of history-. In this structure, architecture, 
materials and light are integral dimen- 
sions of the displays which are key- 
elements in the museum's poignant 
message. The culmination of the visitors 
passage is the Hall of Remembrance, 
a broad and skylit hexagonal room 
designed for prayer and contemplation. 

Programmatically. this Holocaust 
memorial is much more than a museum. 
Approximately 25 percent of its space 
is dedicated to permanent exhibits with 


another five percent allotted to tempo- 
rary installations. In addition, the build- 
ing houses a major research library and 
archives for scholars, a cinema, theater, 
a 10,000-square foot conference center, 
an interactive computer learning center, 
classrooms and areas for impromptu 
discussion. This building represents the 
power of design to give form to human 
experience so that others might learn 
and understand. 


United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners 




United States 
Holocaust Memorial 
Permanent Exhibition 

Washington, DC 

The most difficult task of the design for 
the permanent exhibition of the U.S. 
Holocaust Memorial Museum was to 
engage visitors in the extremely sensitive 
subject matter without sensationalizing 
or trivializing it. The success of the 
design can be measured by public reac- 
tion. During the first year, 1 .3 million 
people visited the permanent collection 
staying for an average of three hours, 
twice the typical museum visit. 

Focusing on individuals within the 
larger context of the Holocaust, the 
designers have created a restrained 
presentation, taking into account visi- 
tors' ages and tolerance levels. Within 
this context, the designers have success- 
fully integrated 2,500 photographs, 
1,000 artifacts, 53 video monitors, 30 
interactive stations, and three video 
projection theaters. 

Because of scheduling constraints, 
the entire project was completed in half 
the usual time. Coordination with the 
architect allowed the exhibition design- 
ers to modify the architectural space 

even after the construction drawings 
were complete. Design development 
and fabrication also overlapped with 
approximately 200 square feet designed 
every three weeks and built within the 
following two months. 

By confronting moral issues in his- 
tory and creating a new paradigm for 
museums that integrates architecture 
and exhibits into a total experience, the 
museum has helped advance design. 
Using the model of a storytelling walk- 
through, a number of cultural history 
facilities dealing with issues of ethics 
and values have emerged across the 

The close working relationship 
between the museum designers and the 
United States Holocaust Memorial 
Council, the federal organization result- 
ing from the legislation authorizing the 
museum, allowed the designers to work 
through several difficult agendas. The 
result was the unusually rapid develop- 
ment of a remarkably successful federal 
design project. 


United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 
Ralph Appelbaum Associates Incorporated 




The Double Arch Bridge 
of the Natchez Trace 

Franklin, Tennessee 

Since the late 1930s, the National Park 
Service has been constructing the 
Natchez Trace Parkway, a two-lane 
roadway that runs from Nashville, 
Tennessee to Natchez, Mississippi. 
This roadway closely aligns with the 
historic Natchez Trace - the most highly 
traveled wilderness trail of the old 
"Southwest". The parkway is an unhur- 
ried connection between Natchez and 
Nashville that offers a sense of the his- 
torical significance of the Trace, while 
preserving the character and natural 
beauty of the surrounding landscape. 
The design and construction of the 
Double Arch Bridge, spanning a large 
valley across Tennessee Route 96 near 
Franklin, Tennessee, represents one of 
the final links of the 50-year parkway 

The major goal of the project was to 
preserve and enhance the area's natural 
beauty while maintaining a high stan- 
dard of economic and environmental 
responsibility. A particular challenge to 
the designers was the sensitivity of the 
steep slope of the valley. Equipment 
could not be placed there without caus- 
ing damage. The double arch design 
was selected to complement the natural 
beauty of the area and create a focal 
point for the northern portion of the 
parkway. As it crosses the valley, the 
bridge spans more than 1,600 feet and 
rises to 155 feet above the valley floor. 

The design of the bridge was innova- 
tive in a couple of ways. First, rather than 
using the spandrel columns traditionally 
used in arch bridges to evenly distribute 
the weight of the deck, the Double Arch 
Bridge concentrates the weight near the 
crown of each arch, creating an altered 
geometry with the arches being thicker 
at their crowns than at their bases. The 
result is a strong, clean profile for the 
bridge, set against its natural landscape. 
Second, the bridge's arches, decks and 
piers were constructed out of precast 
segments, representing the first time 
precast segmental technology was used 
in an arched bridge in the United States. 
The total project time was only 25 

Effective communication and inter- 
action among the National Park Service, 
Federal Highway Administradon, and 
contractor resulted in a project that was 
completed on time and without legal 
claims, cost increases, accidents, or 
permanent damage to the environment. 
Traffic on Route 96 was not interrupted. 
All this was accomplished while achiev- 
ing National Park Service requirements 
for functionality and aesthetic appeal. 



Department of Transportation, 
Federal Highway Administration, 
Eastern Federal Lands Highway Division 

Department of the Interior, 

National Park Service, Denver Service Center, 

the Southeast Region and the 

Natchez Trace Parkway Visitor Center 

Figg Engineering Group 



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Interstate 90 
Completion Project 

Seattle, Washington 

The Interstate 90 Completion Project 
demonstrates that through careful plan- 
ning and creative application of land- 
scape design, a highway can knit com- 
munities together rather than tear them 
apart. The seven-mile multimodal 
transportation corridor includes 200 
acres of park and roadside development, 
12 miles of bicycle/pedestrian trails, 
31 acres of landscape development on 
concrete covers or "lids" over the high- 
way, and four acres of new wedands in 
three urban communities. 

The old 1-90 freeway separated 
communities with a broad expanse of 
pavement, noise and vehicular pollu- 
tion. Now, the communities have been 
physically and emotionally reconnected 
by lowering die roadway to reduce its 
visual and noise impact and by using 
wide, landscaped bridge structures and 
lids to cover the freeway with park 
space. The new open spaces created by 
the lids and bridges now contain parks, 
tennis courts and ball fields that bring 
residents together. 

The project is the result of vision, 
perseverance, and design excellence by 
landscape architects, civil and structural 
engineers, artists, and countless citizens 
and public leaders who were involved in 
more than 30 years of planning, design 
and implementation. 

Technical excellence is demon- 
strated in the innovative use of the lid 
structures that crown the lowered high- 
way. The fids gready reduce the traffic 
noise and cover the visual impact of the 
highway. Irrigation systems were de- 
signed to provide plants with moisture 
during summer droughts, with an inno- 
vative computer system automatically 
adjusting watering frequencies. 

Other innovative technical solutions 
included the design and construction of 
the two largest concrete floating bridges 

in the world, a new wedand in Mercer 
Slough, and the largest in diameter, soft- 
ground tunnel in the world. Also, the 
lowering of the roadway required vari- 
ous retaining wall applications to re- 
spond to unique soil conditions. 

Aesthetic excellence also abounds. 
The planners coordinated wall configu- 
rations, signage and illumination to 
ensure continuity throughout the corri- 
dor. Wide landscaped medians and 
planting pockets within the lowered 
roadway provide delineation of traffic 
lanes and tie the project to the surround- 
ing environment. A viewpoint was 
created to take advantage of the spec- 
tacular view of the floating bridges, 
Lake Washington and the Cascade 
Mountains from the east portal of the 
tunnel at Mount Baker Ridge. 

The Interstate 90 Completion 
Project successfully provides creative 
solutions to multiple design issues. It 
makes and maintains pedestrian connec- 
tions between existing neighborhoods 
and is a model for collaboration and 
coordination of an extremely large and 
complex project. 


Department of Transportation, 
Federal Highway Administration, 
Washington Division 

Washington State Department 
of Transportation 




River Relocation Project 

Providence, Rhode Island 

Moving rivers might appear to be a 
Herculean task to some, but in Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, city planners have 
done just that and in the process have 
knit together the urban fabric of their 
city. Not far from the spot where Roger 
Williams first stepped ashore in 1636, 
the Woonasquatucket, Moshassuck 
and Providence Rivers have been 
reconfigured, creating a "Y-shaped" 
landscaped river corridor at the center 
of the city connecting existing parks and 
accommodating both boat traffic and a 
pedestrian walkway. 

The river-moving is just part of a 
major urban revitalization plan that 
includes removing acres of roadway 
decking and interstate access ramps that 
obscured the rivers, providing naviga- 
tional lanes for small craft, improving 
pedestrian access, clarifying traffic 
patterns and beautifying what had 
previously been an eyesore. Seven 
distinct new bridges have been designed 
to accommodate vehicles, and five other 
new bridges are dedicated for pedestrian 
use. The bridges collect and distribute 

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traffic from the core of the city and tie 
into the interstate system. A four-acre 
park called Waterplace at the western 
terminus of the new walkway system 
contains a visitor center, amphitheater, 
fountain and several small plazas. 

The project's ability to bring aes- 
thetic beauty to a great variety of large 
and small elements is remarkable. The 
new bridges have been designed with 
gentle arches that reflect in the water 
and allow small boats to pass through. 
Pedestrian walkways along the river- 
banks have been paved with cobble- 
stones from an old city street, and large 
granite blocks from a demolished rail- 
road viaduct line the river walls. Even 
the smallest details have been carefully 
considered for their beauty and func- 

Public participation has been the 
hallmark of the design process dating 
from the initial 1983 waterfront study 
that launched the effort. A design advi- 
sory committee composed of citizens 
and public agencies participated in the 


design process on a regular basis. In 
addition, several public workshops and 
hearings were conducted. 

The River Relocation Project is an 
ambitious and thoughtful effort that 
succeeds in improving the city's infra- 
structure and traffic problems while 
turning around the image of the water- 
front, drawing business and pedestrians 
to its beauty and amenities. 


Department of Transportation. Federal Highway 
Administration, Region 1 

Rhode Island Department ol Transportation 

William D. Warner. Architects & Planners 

Maguire Group, Inc. 



The Cooper- Hewitt, 
National Museum off Design, 
Smithsonian Institution 

New York, New York 

The Cooper-Hewitt, National Museum 
of Design, Smithsonian Institution, has 
consistently advocated the importance 
of design in our lives by including a 
broad audience in a discourse covering 
a wide range of design issues. Through 
the outstanding use of design and de- 
signers in its own publications and 
exhibits, the museum serves as a role 
model in fostering good design and 
informing the public about design. 

The museum's exhibitions have 
ranged in their focus from an examina- 
tion of a single object to displaying 
some of its most rare collections. With 
"A Royal Gift: The 1862 Porcelain 
Jewel Cabinet," the goal was to focus 
on one extraordinary object from the 
museum's permanent collection - a six 
foot tall jewelry cabinet made at the 
Sevres factory in Paris during the 1820s. 
In 1992, the Cooper-Hewitt introduced 
the Ludmilla and Henry Collection of 
Soviet propaganda porcelains in the 
exhibition and accompanying catalogue 
to "Revolution, Life and Labor: Soviet 
Porcelains 1918-1985." 

The Cooper-Hewitt also examines 
the design process behind different 

types of objects, their development, and 
the impact they have in our daily lives. 
Demonstrating the importance of maps 
as a form of visual information design, 
The "Power of Maps" exhibition re- 
vealed the particular point of view and 
specific interests behind the creation 
of maps. The exhibition, "Packaging 
the New: Design and the American 
Consumer" brought the relationship 
between the designer, the advertiser 
and the consumer into focus, exploring 
the results of 40 years of consumer 
culture in America. This critical stance 
was also a key factor in the exhibition, 
"Mechanical Brides: Women and 
Machines from Home to Office" which 
examined how design meets functional 
or practical needs while simultaneously 
creating cultural identities. 

Through well-designed, striking 
exhibitions and publications covering a 
wide range of topics, the Cooper-Hewitt 
is playing a vital role in educating the 
general public about the importance 


of design. The museum should be 
applauded for the high standards that 
have been set in developing such cre- 
ative and imaginative projects. By serv- 
ing as a model for other institutions in 
the use of good design practices, the 
Cooper-Hewitt fulfills its role as a 
national design advocate. 


Smithsonian Institution, Cooper-Hewitt. 
National Design Museum 



FDA Food 
Label Design 

One of the central challenges of graphic 
design is how to create a design that 
expedites the understanding of informa- 
tion. Rarely has there been a more 
formidable federal design challenge than 
the redesigning of the nutrition labeling 
for package foods. The redesign of the 
labeling was mandated by the Nutrition 
and Labeling Act of 1990, and as a 
response to a public becoming increas- 
ingly more concerned about the nutri- 
tional content of the food products they 
buy. The responsibility for the new 

labeling system fell to the Food and 
Drug Administration, the branch of 
the Department of Health and Human 
Services that regulates nutritional infor- 

The design had to attract the atten- 
tion of an enormously diverse target 
audience, as it competed with the dra- 
matic design of product packaging, in 
a severely restricted amount of space. 
Complex nutritional data had to be 
presented in a clear and simple format in 
order to assist this audience in making 


The New Food Label at a Glance 

The new food label will carry an up-to-date, easier touse 
nutrition information guide, to be required on almost all 
packaged foods (compared to about 60 percent of products 
up till now). The guide will serve as a key to help in plan- 
ning a healthy diet.* 

Serving sizes are 

now more 
consistent across 
product lines, are 
stated in both 
household and 
metric measures, 
and reflect the 
amounts people 
actually eat. 

The label of 
larger packages 
may now tell the 
number of 
calories per 
gram of fat, 
and protein. 

The list of 

covers those 
most important to 
the health of 
today's consum- 
ers, most of 
whom need to 
worry about 
getting too much 
of certain nutri- 
ents (fat. for 
example), rather 
than too few 
vitamins or 
minerals, as in 
the past. 

Nutrition Facts 

Serving Size 1 cup (228g) 
Servings Per Container 2 

Amount Per Serving 

Calories 260 Calories from Fat 120 

% Daily Value* 

Total Fat 13g 


Saturated Fat 5g 


Cholesterol 30mg 


Sodium 660mg 


Total Carbohydrate 31 g 10% 

Dietary Fiber Og 


Sugars 5g 

Protein 5g 

Vitamin A 4% 

Vitamin C 2% 

Calcium 15% • 

Iron 4% 

Percent Daily Values are based on 
calorie diet. Your daily values may 
or lower depending on your calorie 
Calories: 2,000 

a 2,000 

be higher 



Total Fat Less than 

Sat Fat Less than 
Cholesterol Less than 
Sodium Less than 2,400mg 

Total Carbohydrate 300g 

Dietary Fiber 









Calories per gram: 

Fat 9 • Carbohydrate 4 • Protein 4 

New title signals 
that the label 
contains the newly 
required tnforma 

Calories from fat 

are now shown on 
the label to help 
consumers meet 
dietary guidelines 
that recommend 
people get no more 
than 30 percent of 
the calories in their 
overall diet from 

% Dally Value 

shows how a 
food fits into the 
overall daily diet. 

Dally Values are 

also something 
new. Seme are 
maximums, as with 
fat (65 grams or 
less.); others are 
mmimums, as with 
carbohydrate (300 
grams or more l. 
The daily values for 
a 2.000- and 2.500- 
calorie diet must be 
listed on the label 
of larger packages. 

This label is only a sample. Exact specifications are in the final rules. 
Source: Food and Drug Administration, 1994 

quick, informed decisions that will 
ultimately affect their health. After a 
three-year design process that included 
the study of designs from other coun- 
tries, numerous public hearings, over 
1.200 consumer interviews, and the 
analysis of more than 40. 000 comments, 
the FDA created a new standard for 
package food design with the new 
Nutrition Facts label. 

By introducing a new nutrition tool 
called "daily value" in conjunction with 
a carefully chosen set of rules ami type- 
faces, the new labels let consumers 
quickly and easily assess the amount of 
a particular ingredient as it relates to 
their overall daily diet. In a time when 
the public is exposed to large amounts 
of complex information that is often 
disorganized and difficult to inteqjret, 
the FDA's efforts to clarify the under- 
standing of nutritional data are excep- 
tional. The FDA estimates that as much 
as $27 billion in healthcare costs will be 
saved over the next 20 years as the result 
of Americans making better choices 
about their diets. 


Department of Health and Human Services. 
Food and Drug Administration 

Greenfield/Belser Ltd. 

"We're witnessing a public 
health milestone and a victory 
for consumers." 

Michael Jacobson, Director 
The Center for Science in the 
Public Interest 

"For the first time, the food 
industry, government and 
health professionals are singing 
the same song." 

Joan I Iorbiak, President 
Health and Nutrition Network 

"With large type and revealing 
figures, the new food labels 
take much of the myster) out 
of nutrition." 

Time Magazine 






19 9 5 


Barataria Environmental 
Education Center 

Jean Lafitte National Historical 
Park and Preserve 
New Orleans, Louisiana 

A prominent example of ecologically- 
sensitive design, Barataria Environmen- 
tal Education Center was designed to 
provide the public with a safe place to 
learn about and experience the 20,000- 
acre Jean Lafitte National Historical 
Park and Preserve in New Orleans. 
Blending into the diverse natural and 
cultural environments native to the 
Mississippi River Delta, the 8,600- 
square-foot building is surrounded by 
bayous, shaded by pecan and oak trees, 
and set back into the undergrowth to 
mask its size. Facilities are organized 
along a central spine and include a 
library, amphitheater, workshop/labora- 
tory, kitchen, office, and audio/visual 
area, each gently tucked among the trees 
of the pecan grove. 

Amplifying this closeness to nature, 
skylights, translucent roofing materials 
and walls treated as grids of windows or 

framed openings create spaces where 
inside and outside seem to merge. It is a 
collection of tranquil spaces, dappled 
with sun and shadow, that is so thought- 
fully woven into the forest that no major 
trees had to be removed to accommo- 
date the design. 

In a structural approach typical of 
delta architecture, the entire center and 
adjoining pathways are lifted above the 
swamp on concrete columns to preserve 
existing drainage patterns, minimize 
damage to plants and animals, and 
elevate the floors above flood level 
during hurricanes. The Barataria Envi- 
ronmental Education Center is an excel- 
lent example of how design can create 
public spaces that both celebrate and 
respect our nation's cherished natural 


Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service, 
Denver Service Center and the 
Jean Lafitte National Historical 
Park and Preserve 

Eskew Filson Architects 

The Architectural 
Advisory Board 

The presence of United States embas- 
sies abroad provides our country with 
the opportunity to establish a strong 
positive image in host countries 
throughout the world. The architecture 
of the buildings that house our foreign 
missions must strike a delicate balance 
between presenting a strong visual 
symbol of the values we wish to project 
to the world while remaining sensitive to 
the design traditions of each country. 
For more than 40 years, the Archi- 
tectural Advisory Board of the State 
Department's Office of Foreign Build- 
ings Operations (FBO) has helped 
produce an impressive body of work 
that has received acclaim from host 
countries and architectural critics 
throughout the world. The Architec- 
tural Advisory Board's primary mission 
is to examine conceptual designs for 
new embassies and provide design 
guidance to the FBO and its architects. 
The board is composed of three interna- 
tionally acclaimed architects and archi- 
tectural educators who serve three-year 
terms. Over the years, its membership 
has included architects such as Pietro 
Belluschi, Eero Saarinen, Charles 
Moore, Harry Weese, and Thomas 
Beeby. In a process that emphasizes 



T E C T U R E 

creative dialogue, the board participates 
in the selection of a design firm, pro- 
vides a critique of two or three design 
alternatives for the project, and, finally, 
works with the architects to address 
unique building requirements, security- 
criteria, architectural quality, and un- 
foreseen challenges that inevitably arise 
as a design evolves. 

The Architectural Advisory Board 
has, with great success, fostered an 
excellence in embassy design that has 
communicated openness, goodwill and 
dignity, thereby enhancing our nation's 
image throughout the world. Numerous 
award-winning buildings attest to the 
long-term success of the board. The 
program opens up communication 
between the client and the architect and 
establishes benchmarks of excellence 
that encourage designers to do their 
best. This is a model program for other 
federal agencies. 


Department of State, 

Office of Foreign Buildings Operations 

Daybreak Grove/ 
Sunrise Place 

Escondido, California 

These two low-income housing projects 
are models for what imaginative and 
carefully planned design can do to 
create vital and colorful living environ- 
ments diat celebrate community and 
family with limited resources and bud- 
get. Built for about $50 per square foot, 
each project supports and enhances 
family life in innovative ways. 

Daybreak Grove has been designed 
for single-parent families, providing a 
world of security and stability for fami- 
lies determined to make it back into the 
mainstream. Inspired by the traditional 
California bungalow court - a central 
space surrounded by clustered build- 
ings - each of the 13 units is configured 
around a small internal patio which 
provides the family with private outdoor 
living space and ensures natural light 
and cross ventilation in every room. 
Each apartment's compact size is en- 
hanced by a variety of outdoor spaces 
including both front and back porches 
and yards. 

At Sunrise Place, the focus is on 
the multigenerational family. Here, the 
three-bedroom townhouses are orga- 
nized around a central courtyard - the 
social center of the community - recall- 
ing the plazas of Latin America. Flexible 

unit plans respond to the changing 
needs of families, with extra space for 
.mother bedroom, office space or living 
area. Double-height stairs and loft 
spaces make the compact plans spacious 
and airy. 

In both projects, the orientation of 
each kitchen to the courtyard acknowl- 
edges its prominence as the focus of 
family life and provides parents with the 
opportunity to supervise their children 
while preparing meals. The exterior 
spaces support community interaction 
and include grassy play areas, laundro- 
mat, outdoor theater, fruit trees, and 
vegetable gardens. 

Both projects are humane, affordable 
and welcoming environments that have 
a wonderful sense of scale and create 
nurturing public spaces. 


Department of Housing and 
Urban Developuicnl. 
Pacific/Hawaii Field Office 

North County Housing Foundation 

Davids Killorv 



Independence Square 

Washington, DC 

The challenge for the architects of 
Independence Square was to design 
on a narrow lot 150 feet wide and 1,100 
feet long the headquarters for two fed- 
eral agencies with very different needs 
and identities, creating a visually unified 
whole. The buildings for the Office of 
the Comptroller of the Currency and the 
National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration (NASA) relate to one another 
through the use of similar materials, 
color and textures. Individual identities 
are established by differences in size, 
variations in detail and subtle design 
elements such as the curved wall at the 
end of the NASA building. 

Independence Square is also remark- 
able for its thoughtfully designed pedes- 
trian streetscapes and its interior and 

rooftop spaces. Lobbies combine stone, 
wood and metal details, as well as art 
and special lighting effects, in ways that 
are simultaneously impressive and 
inviting. Roof gardens for occupants 
offer dramatic views of the Capitol and 
other landmarks. 

The design of Independence Square 
is both functional and practical. Built 
by a private developer and leased to the 
General Services Administration, the 
partners were able to meet the federal 
government's needs and keep construc- 
tion costs in the low to moderate range 
without compromising quality. Not only 
are the buildings aesthetically compel- 
ling, but they are also energy efficient, 
fully American for Disability Act (ADA) 
compliant and flexible enough to accom- 
modate future changes in technology 
and layout. 


General Services Administration, 
National Capital Region 

National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration 

Boston Properties, Inc. 

Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, PC 

Lowell Performance Pavilion 

Lowell, Massachusetts 

This project is a wonderful example of 
civic architecture. With its modest scale 
and chaste detailing, the Lowell Perfor- 
mance Pavilion makes the point that 
good building does not have to be grand 
or flamboyant to be successful. Running 
140 feet along a canal, the open-air steel 
structure defines a critical edge for two 
urban spaces: the canal walk on one side 
and Boarding House Park on the other. 
As a stop on the trolley line, it becomes 
a ceremonial portal. It is also a pleasant 
pedestrian link between two major park 
buildings of Booth Mills and the re- 
stored Boarding House. Finally, it is a 
landmark serving as the preferred venue 
for celebrations and cultural events. 

Functionally, the pavilion supports 
many activities that encourage the kind 
of vigorous public life that is essential in 
a democratic society. Facilitating perfor- 
mances, the trellis incorporates the 
structure and power supply for theater 
lighting, sound equipment and scenery. 
With vines growing up the columns and 
around the arches, the building is a 



T E C T U R E 

relaxing and sheltered resting place. 
With temporary kiosks and booths, it is 
transformed into a festival marketplace. 
The choice of steel as a material is a 
welcome counterpoint to the long brick 
facades of old industrial buildings, 
adding a sense of excitement and vitality 
to the environment. The pavilion offers 
an effective hierarchy of major and 
minor spaces. And while the framing 
and arched motifs recall eras past, these 
elements are in no way sentimental but 
ultimately convey their contemporary 


Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service 

The Lowell Historic 
Preservation Commission 

Brown & Rowe, Inc. 

William Rawn Associates, Architects 

Lucerne Gardens 

Boston, Massachusetts 

In spite of the need, truly creative solu- 
tions to the low-income housing prob- 
lem are hard to come by. That is what 
makes Lucerne Gardens so special. In a 
deteriorated and long-neglected area of 
Boston, this undertaking is a symbol of 
hope, and design has played an impor- 
tant role in its realization. To reinvigo- 
rate a sense of community and maintain 
the scale of the neighborhood, Lucerne 
Garden's 45 two- and three-bedroom 
units are distributed among 1 8 residen- 
tial buildings that, along with a separate 
community center, fill city blocks and 
reclaim the street as a place for people. 
The gabled roofs, clapboard siding, 
dormer windows and porches reflect 
the architectural details of the area. 
The community center is reminiscent 
of a New England carriage house and 
provides an inviting environment for 
pot luck suppers, block parties and local 
celebrations such as student apprecia- 
tion night. Overall, Lucerne Gardens 
conveys a sense of quality and solidity. 

This effort was realized through a 
partnership among private and public- 

lenders and was designed with signifi- 
cant input from the community. To 

contain costs, units were standardized 
and grouped together in three- and four- 
story buildings. In addition, significant 
parts of the framing were prefabricated. 
All structures are energy efficient and 
were built over an 1 1 -month period. To 
help assure that the development meets 
its social objectives, a resident coordina- 
tor assists families needing community 
services. The combination of good 
design, affordability, long-term owner- 
ship opportunities, resident services and 
a centrally located community center are 
transforming this area into a stable 


Department of Housing and 

Urban Development. New England Area 

City of Boston. 

Public Facilities Department 



Oakland Federal Building 

Oakland, California 

It takes talent and expertise to add 
nearly a million square feet of office 
space to a city center in a manner that 
truly enhances the urban environment. 
The General Sendees Administration 
(GSA) and its architects meet the chal- 
lenge successfully in the new Oakland 
Federal Building. The GSA focused on 
the needs of building users, the sym- 
bolic nature of the federal government 
and courts system, the investment of 
taxpayer dollars, and the potential of the 
building to revitalize Oakland's strug- 
gling downtown. 

The complex houses a courthouse, 
offices for 26 different federal agencies, 
a multipurpose auditorium, and a con- 
ference center. The scale of the federal 
building is appropriately monumental - 
a symbol of strength and stability - 
incoqjorating elegant stone and metal 
details as well as fountains, frescoes and 
sculptures that continue a tradition of 

crafted construction common to gov- 
ernment buildings from eras past. Two 
high-rise towers balance the geometry 
of surrounding high-rise buildings, 
while the more relaxed four- and two- 
story pavilions of the courthouse and 
conference center provide a transition 
to nearby Victorian residential areas. 
The twin, 18-story towers add a pleas- 
ing and distinctive profile to the skyline. 
An inviting landscaped plaza, dramatic, 
glass-enclosed entrance rotunda with 
vistas to the Victorian houses of Preser- 
vation Park, and artwork integrated 
throughout the design provide amenities 
enjoyed by citizens, employees, pass- 
ersby and numerous visiting school 

The building is among the first 
lease-purchase projects undertaken by 
the GSA and is an example of successful 
public-private cooperation that yielded 
superior quality and flexibility at a price 
competitive with the existing market for 
office space. 


General Services Administration, 
Pacific Rim Region 

City of Oakland 

Kaplan McLaughlin Diaz 

Master Facilities Program 
for the National Museum 
off the American Indian 

Washington, DC 

Although seldom acknowledged, design 
excellence is generally supported by 
thoughtful and imaginative planning. 
The Master Facilities Program for the 
National Museum of the American 
Indian is an outstanding example of 
this earliest and least understood stage 
of the design process. The document is 
notable for its comprehensive analysis. 
It reviews the proposed sites - new 
exhibition facilities to be built on the 
Mall in Washington, DC, and storage 
and support space on the Smithsonian 
campus in Suitland, Maryland. The 
program comments on the breadth and 
quality of the collections, explains how 
materials might be used and displayed, 
and proposes a detailed set of design 

All this was achieved as a collabo- 
rative effort with expert contributions 
from many areas. The most valuable 
input came from Native American 
representatives, who conveyed key facts 
about the meaning, rituals and traditions 
surrounding objects in the Smithsonian's 
possession. This, in turn, led to modifi- 
cations in the program. For example, 
the Mall facility emphasizes developing 
exhibits and demonstration spaces that 
show relationships among materials and 



cultures rather than the compartmental- 
ization of information. In Suitland, the 
building is redefined as an interactive 
center that goes beyond the housing 
and care of collections to incorporate 
research and activities related to the 
preservation of Native American culture. 
And finally, a "museum without walls" - 
based on telecommunications technol- 
ogy - is added to the proposal as a way 
to link Native Americans throughout the 
hemisphere to the Smithsonian facilities 
and events. 

Without this thorough investigation, 
critical needs of the National Museum 
of the American Indian would probably 
have gone undiscovered and opportuni- 
ties for innovation would have been lost. 
In design areas not commonly explored, 
this kind of creative analysis and plan- 
ning is absolutely essential. 


Smithsonian Institution, 

Office of Design and Construction 

Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, Inc. 

Thurgood Marshall 
Federal Judiciary Building 

Washington, DC 

This major federal building was com- 
pleted four months ahead of schedule 
and ten percent under budget. More- 
over, it was built by a private developer/ 
architect team without capital funds 
from the government and will revert to 
federal ownership at the end of a 30-year 
lease. Certainly these facts merit recog- 
nition, but over the long-term, the 
Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary 
Building in Washington, DC, will be 
remembered and honored because of 
its extraordinary planning and design. 

Located on Columbus Circle, a 
prominent public space hallmarked 
by a grand fountain and a vista down 
Delaware Avenue to the Capitol, the 
Marshall Building, and the City Post 
Office frame Union Station, the Beaux 
Arts gateway to the nation's capital. The 
building follows the street line, creating 
a critical architectural edge that defines 
and contains the east side of the circle. 
The building uses a contemporary 
vocabulary of volumes and openings 

that respectfully recalls the caden< e, 
rhythms and structure of the station 
without becoming a pastiche of historic 

Equally important is the way the 
building responds to the scale ot its 
surroundings. Upper floors are terraced 
back behind a strong cornice so the 
building does not appear too massivc 
or tall. Adjacent to the station, facades 
are relatively solid and highlighted with 
arches. Along the street, facing a row 
of traditional Victorian townhouses. the 
facade has more glazing and is articu- 
lated with layers of well-proportioned 
rectangular openings. 

The public entrance to the Marshall 
Building is a landscaped atrium that 
provides an attractive view for interior 
offices. With other employee-friendly 
amenities such as a daycare facility and 
fitness center, this edifice creates a 
model work environment. 


Architect of the Capitol 

Boston Properties, Inc. 

Edward Larrabee Barnes/ 
John M. Y. Lee & Partners 


U.S. Border Station 

International Falls, Minnesota 

Crossing a border can sometimes be 
an uncomfortable, tense and unpleasant 
experience. To help alleviate this anxi- 
ety, the design of the U.S. Border Sta- 
tion in International Falls, Minnesota, is 
playful. Located in an industrial zone, 
the site features railroad tracks, elevated 
pipe lines and warehouses. Faced with 
limited Rinding and a harsh winter 
climate, the General Services Adminis- 
tration requested that the building be 
"as functional as possible" and con- 
structed with materials "selected for 
their ability to withstand the elements." 
The designers responded to these 
challenges with a blend of pragmatism, 
joy and finesse. 

To avoid interfering with utility 
easements on the property, the station 
is conceived of as a bridge to minimize 
ground use. Next, to infuse the project 
with color and vitality, the architects 
exploit references to the American flag 
as a theme for building details. Tower 

elements are a deep blue accented with 
a regular pattern of white squares. The 
exterior of the bridge space is red with 
white stripes. Interiors are developed 
with a similarly bold vocabulary. And in 
the most literal allusion to the flag, the 
red and white stripes of the main inspec- 
tion canopy wave over and symbolically 
shelter all who enter the United States as 
they drive through the inspection lanes. 

It is important to understand that 
this optimistic expression of the Ameri- 
can experience was achieved within 
the original strict parameters of the 
commission. Brightly colored surfaces 
are coated with durable resins and 
polymers for longevity. The entire 
structure is well insulated, and windows 
are designed to maximize views while 
keeping heat loss to a minimum. The 
total cost of the project was slightly 
below budget. 


General Services Administration, 
Great Lakes Region 

Architectural Resources. Inc. 

United States 
Embassy Chancery 

Muscat, Oman 

Given the high potential for terrorism 
around the world today, U.S. embassies 
must be safe and secure. As a result, 
security measures for U.S. embassies 
read like the program for designing a 
fortress: perimeter walls surrounding a 
complex must resist breach by vehicles, 
climbing, prying, hammering and saw- 
ing; access must be channeled through 
a minimum number of controlled en- 
trances; only 15 percent of each exterior 
structural bay can be glazed; building 
service systems must be designed in 
parallel networks with utilities that serve 
secure areas made accessible only to 
U.S. personnel with security clearances; 
and the list goes on. In this context, the 
chancery in Muscat, Oman, demon- 
strates that it is possible to meet these 
stringent requirements and still create a 



facility that is both sensitive to its cul- 
tural setting and establishes a positive 
image for the United States. 

Responding to guidelines intended 
to ensure the Islamic character of public 
architecture in Oman, the chancery is 
enriched with arched openings and 
colorful tile and marble details that give 
the structure an appropriate monumen- 
tal profile while providing a play of 
human-scaled geometric patterns 
throughout the complex. As in other 
buildings in the hot climate, facades are 
layered so windows are shaded by 
loggias and have their vistas framed by 
piers and arches. The plan, with its 
series of courtyards and gardens, also 
reflects the regional style, creating many 
pleasant, even intimate, enclosed spaces 
graced with plants and pools of water. 
In the final analysis, the chancery re- 
spects the local traditions of the workers 
and visitors who will use the facility, 
without compromising the forward- 
looking character of its mission and the 
innumerable security measures essential 
in the contemporary political climate. 
It complements the culture of Oman 
while making an architectural statement 
that expresses America's ideals and 


Department of State, 

Office of Foreign Buildings Operations 

Polshek and Partners Architects 

Women's Rights 
National Historical Park 

Wesleyan Chapel Block 

Seneca Falls, New York 

The simplicity of this memorial is its 
strength. The Women's Rights National 
Historical Park, built around the ruins 
of Wesleyan Chapel (home of the first 
women's rights convention in the 
United States held during July 1848), 
blends into the Seneca Falls townscape, 
much as the chapel did when it was 
originally constructed in 1843. Preserv- 
ing the existing fragmentary nature of 
the historic building is a symbol of the 
intermittent attention historically de- 
voted to the struggle for the rights of 

A roof shelters the ruins and stone 
walls, marks the street edge and creates 
a gateway to the park. Off to the side, 
terraced seating and a sloped lawn 
articulate a resting place where individu- 
als might take a moment for quiet medi- 
tation or groups might gather to cel- 
ebrate and continue the tradition of 
public dialogue that has hallmarked the 
history of this site. An additional exte- 
rior feature is a Milestone wall along the 
edge of the lawn where, as a focus for 
contemplation, water flows over an 
inscription of the Declaration of Senti- 
ments - the centerpiece manifesto of the 
1848 convention. To complete the 
experience, the Village Hall that adjoins 
the open space is now used as a visitor 
and administrative center. 

Everything about the project is 
modest - even its final cost was ten 
percent below budget. But great skill lias 
been used to bring together elements of 
urban planning, architecture, preserva- 
tion, art, landscape and interpretive 
design to create a powerful landmark 
that captures the history of this place 
without sentimentally reconstructing it. 
In the end. those who pass through this 
park leave with the understanding that 
the struggle for women's rights is an 
integral and ongoing facet of the pursuit 
of civil rights for all Americans. 


Department of the Interior. 
National Park Sen ice. 
Denver Service Center 

Ann Wills Marshall 

Ray Kinoshita 

Robert Silman Associates 

A. E. Bye Associates. Landscape Architects 

The Stein Partnership, Vn him ts 



Spreckels Temple of Music 

San Francisco, California 

In a few years, people will be making 
plans to celebrate the centennial of the 
Spreckels Temple of Music, the elegant 
Beaux Arts backdrop for outdoor music 
performances and civic events in 
Golden Gate Park. Not so long ago, 
however, it wasn't certain that would be 
the case. Designed in 1899, this home 
for Opera in the Park and Sunday Band 
Concerts was damaged during the 1906 
earthquake and repaired, and then 
damaged again in the 1989 Loma Prieta 
quake. After this last disaster, it was 
fenced off and went unused for more 
than four years. There was concern that 
the brick and terra-cotta band shell 
would not survive another seismic jolt. 
Pairs of columns - which in plan ex- 
tended more than 50 feet to either side 
of the stage - had shifted noticeably 
from their original positions. 

In 1990, a combination of federal 
and local funds became available to 
repair and stabilize the Temple. But 
there was a dilemma: should the sand- 
stone columns, which needed to have 


their cores drilled and strengthened 
with reinforced concrete, be dismantled 
and rebuilt, or should this work be 
implemented in place? The columns also 
needed re-plumbing and re-centering. 
After significant debate, it was decided 
to preserve everything in place, and the 
contractor completed the upgrade 
without causing further damage. Other 
improvements were also executed, 
including reinforcing the dome of the 
band shell, adding a new roof slab and 
refurbishing details of the building. 

On July 3, 1994, Spreckels Temple 
of Music reopened. Visibly, the exterior 
has not changed. But within, a new 
structural skeleton provides assurance 
that people will be enjoying this civic 
landmark as it gracefully crosses the 
threshold into the 21st century. 


Federal Emergency 
Management Agency, Region IX 

The City and County of 

San Francisco Bureau of Architecture 


Carey & Company 

Wiss Janney Elstner Associates 

Page and Turnbull 

Rehabilitation of the 
Old State House 

Boston, Massachusetts 

This building, constructed in 1713, 
is a jewel in Massachusetts and a part 
of American history that has survived 
numerous transformations. Originally 
the seat of colonial government, the 
Old State House has served as the city 
hall, a commercial center, and the venue 
for state government. Its charred roof 
beams attest to damage from several 
fires, and in the early twentieth century, 
two floors were raised to accommodate 
subway construction. Since 1881, the 
structure has been maintained by the 
Bostonian Society as a museum of 
Boston history. 

In 1987, the city and the National 
Park Service decided the landmark 
needed a major restoration. But in a 
building with many lives, what is the 
appropriate restoration strategy and to 
what extent can contemporary technol- 
ogy and accessibility standards be intro- 
duced? Responses to these questions 
came from a team of specialists who 

P R E S E R V A T 

O N 

determined that the best approach 
should be to maintain the overall integ- 
rity of the original design, to enhance 
the current use of the Old State House 
as a museum, and to acknowledge the 
building's rich history. To these ends, 
brick and woodwork as well as the 
decorative Royal Lion and Unicorn 
symbols were restored, air conditioning 
and a sprinkler system were unobtru- 
sively installed, lifts were incorporated 
to provide first-floor access for wheel- 
chair-bound visitors, an 1830s clock 
was remounted on the facade and interi- 
ors were refurbished to demonstrate 
how, over the past 110 years, the colo- 
nial rooms had been "restored" in three 
very different ways. 

It was a complex job handled with 
sophistication and good judgment while 
respecting the past and providing for the 
future. Thus, as the Old State House 
completes three centuries of service, it 
remains an example of living architec- 


Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service, 
Denver Service Center, the 
North Atlantic Region and the 
Boston National Historical Park 

Goody, Clancy and Associates, Inc. 

The City of Boston 

The Bostonian Society 

A.J. Martini, Inc. 

Washington Monument Entry 
Level Lobby Renovation 

Washington, DC 

In design, little things really do mean 
a lot. Looking at size and budget alone, 
the Washington Monument Entry Level 
Lobby Renovation is quite modest. In 
terms of impact, however, this restora- 
tion/interior design project greatly 
enhances the character and quality of 
one of the nation's most familiar land- 
marks. The objective was to redesign 
the Washington Monument's entry 
lobby - an area that had been modified 
at various times since opening in 1888 - 
in a way that was more respectful of the 
historic and symbolic significance of the 

At the East Portal and West Cham- 
ber, hung ceilings and marble wainscot- 
ting were removed to reveal the full 
height and original dressed marble walls 
of these impressive spaces. Then, blend- 
ing art and architecture, the West Cham- 
ber was used as the setting for a life-size 
bronze statue of George Washington. 
In the South Corridor waiting room, the 
1904 marble details were cleaned, new 
light fixtures installed, and the walls 
adorned with bronze garlands in a motif 
recalling designs from Mount Vernon. 
Finally, an Egyptian-styled limestone 
surround as well as bronze doors and 
a bronze relief sculpture were used to 
distinguish the elevator as a monumental 

Innovative historical research was 
conducted to evaluate the feasibility of 
all these changes. Fiber optic cable and 
a video camera were used to get a "pic- 
ture" of the space behind various mate- 
rial layers to determine the condition of 

finishes and how to remove them and 
make sure modifications would not 
compromise the integrity of the struc- 
ture. The overall effect is a processional 
which imparts a sense of awe and quiet 
reverence that makes a lasting first 
impression as the entry to tliis treasured 


Department of the Interior, 
National Park Sen ice, 
Division of Exhibits, 
Harpers Fern Center 

Notter + Associates, PC 

Skylight Studios. Inc. 



Freer Gallery of Art: 
Restoration and Reinstallation 

Washington, DC 

The Freer Gallery of Art. known for its 
fine collection of Asian and American 
art, had not undergone major renova- 
tions since it opened in 1923. In the 
intervening years, the building's systems 
and general appearance had slowly 
deteriorated, and curatorial, technical 
and visitor requirements had changed 
significandy. To address these problems 
comprehensively, the museum was 
closed to the public in 1988 to update 
the systems, refurbish 25,000 square 
feet of public space, and reinstall all 20 
galleries of exhibits. 

The objective was to maintain the 
character and spatial qualities of the 
Italian Renaissance-stvle structure while 

creating a truly modern facility. Plaster 
walls were removed and replaced with 
walls of more durable and easily repaired 
materials. The building's 1,550 skylight 
units were redone with glazing that 
reduced harmful emissions and mini- 
mized seasonal changes in illumination. 
Spotlights were installed to emphasize 
individual works of art. 

Another major facet of the project 
was to develop an exhibition case that 
was both more secure and easily acces- 
sible. The result - which has attracted 
the interest of curators from around the 
world - is a beautifully crafted walnut 
cabinet base built around an aluminum 
frame with dust-proof glass tops that are 
raised and lowered on treaded stainless 
steel supports. Other refinements to the 
interior include new corridor fighting 
fixtures that show off the vaulting of the 
hallways, a graphic design strategy that 
covers everything from signage to bro- 
chure panels, a revised gallery color 
scheme, and restoration of the 
museum's courtyard and landscaping to 
the design originally proposed. The 
modifications, while subtle, are impor- 
tant improvements to the museum. The 
project was completed under budget, 
and since its reopening in 1993 the 
number of visitors has nearly doubled. 


Smithsonian Institution, 
Freer Gallery of Art and 
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and the 
Office of Design and Construction 

Exhibition Design at the 
National Gallery of Art 

Washington, DC 

The Department of Design and Instal- 
lation at the National Gallery of Art 
designs and installs from 15 to 25 major 
special exhibitions each year. The nine 
exhibitions submitted, dating from the 
years 1991-1994, were selected to 
represent the range, diversity and quality 
of their installations. During the past 
quarter century, the department has 
designed more than 300 exhibitions and 
through its many innovative achieve- 
ments has been recognized as a world 
leader in museum installation design. 

Museum policy mandates that each 
exhibition be experienced in a setting 
appropriate to the aesthetic, art histori- 
cal, and architectural approach of the 
installation design. The results of this 
approach are as varied as the themes of 
the exhibitions and the works of art they 
contain. Using the extraordinarily flex- 
ible spaces in both the modern I.M. Pei 
East Building and the neoclassical John 
Russell Pope West Building, the designs 



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and their educational dimension engage 
the visitor in a dialogue between objects 
and ideas. The visitor moves through 
spaces that are detailed to reflect the 
concepts of the exhibition. 

Many of the exhibitions represented 
in this selection used innovative lighting 
technology such as fiber optics, as well 
as state-of-the-art conservation environ- 
ments for particularly fragile pieces. All 
exhibitions at the National Gallery are 
designed for accessibility, with special 
attention given to pedestal heights, label 
sizes and adequate lighting. Efficiencies 
in building techniques and the recycling 
of cases and architectural elements have 
become an integral part of the design 
process in order to reduce costs. Incor- 
porating economy, technology', accessi- 
bility and a strong underlying didactic 
theme has placed exhibition design at 
the National Gallery of Art in the fore- 
front of its field. 


National Gallery of Art. 
Design Department 

National Postal Museum 

Washington, DC 

If the idea of a postal museum conjures 
up images of tweezers and magnifying 
glasses, be prepared for a suqirise. This 
lively gallery is located in the atrium of 
a landmark building that has been reno- 
vated for use as 850,000 square feet of 
prime federal office space. From the 
street entrance, the visitor moves 
through a grand Beaux Arts lobby and 
down escalators to a courtyard occupied 
by a horse-drawn carriage, a railroad 
mail car, and a couple of suspended 
airplanes. Visitors can actually use the 
full-service post office that is part of the 
design, research a particular question in 
the library and special collections area, 
or wander through exhibits ranging from 
"Moving the Mail" to "Customers and 
Communities" to "Stamps and Stories." 
All around are architectural elements 
that recall materials and systems related 
to the post office. The ceiling over the 
escalators is embossed with graphics 
and perforations that mimic a sheet of 

stamps. Metal frames and trusses refer 
to gallery catwalks above sorting rooms 
and the conveyor systems used to move 
mail. Railings arc detailed as cancella- 
tion marks. In addition, an abundance 
of historic photos, postal artwork and 
post office paraphernalia complement 
the overall design. 

The merit of this scheme, however, 
goes beyond the quality of the museum 
itself. Here is a gallery - a part of the 
prestigious Smithsonian Institution 
that, because of its location in a major 
office building, becomes an integral part 
of everyday life. The exhibits contribute 
a unique dynamic experience to a tradi- 
tional building program. This is a mu- 
seum people can actually enjoy on their 
way to work. 


United States Postal Service, 
National Postal Museum 

Smithsonian Institution, 
National Postal Museum 

Hines Interests Limited Partnership 

Florance Eichbaum EsocojfKing Architects 

Miles Fridberg Molinaroli 



Environmental River 
Engineering on the Mississippi 

The Environmental River Engineering 
project was implemented in 1970 by 
the St. Louis District of the U.S. Army 
Coqis of Engineers to correct the lack 
of biodiversity in the Middle Mississippi 
River area. In the early nineteenth 
century, the river was narrow and deep, 
contained by stable banks lined with vast 
forests. As these forests were cleared, 
the banks deteriorated, the river wid- 
ened and grew shallow, and navigation 
became dangerous. Near the turn of the 
century, the Corps of Engineers began 
a bank stabilization program to ensure 
safe river traffic. The navigational struc- 
tures imposed upon the river ensured a 
clear channel for shipping but severely 
damaged the river's ecology. 

The Environmental River Engineer- 
ing project's goal was to reverse man's 
destruction by stabilizing the river banks 
with navigational structures that work 
in harmony with the natural laws of the 
river. The river presents a dynamic and 
fast-changing set of conditions calling 

for a great number of specific solutions. 
Each navigational structure was designed 
individually, to fit specific locations 
along the river. Many newly designed 
structures were model tested before 
being installed in the river, avoiding the 
cost risks associated with field testing. 
Tests conducted by the Illinois and 
Missouri State Departments of Conser- 
vation show that the variety of dikes, 
revetments, and side channel improve- 
ments implemented over the past 20 
years of the project's history have radi- 
cally improved the biological conditions 
along the Middle Mississippi. This envi- 
ronmental goal is being accomplished 
without impeding traffic through the 
main navigation channel. The project's 
success makes it a model for other major 
river systems. 


Department of Defense, 

U.S. Army, Department of the Army, 

Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District 

Marathon Battery 
Superfund Site Design 

Cold Spring, New York 

At the Marathon Battery plant in Cold 
Springs, New York, one of the North- 
east's worst hazardous waste sites, 
contamination from toxic heavy metal 
waste discharges threatened local resi- 
dents and a pristine Audubon wildlife 
sanctuary. Through the Comprehensive 
Environmental Response, Compensa- 
tion, Liability Act (Superfund), the 
Environmental Protection Agency and 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers jointly 
administered and managed an effort to 
develop a cost-effective design to clean 
up the site. 

The Marathon Battery project took 
advantage of several innovative, cost- 
saving features. A sophisticated soil, 
water, sediment and vegetative plan, 
coupled with geostatistical modeling, 
sharply reduced project scope and cost. 
Value engineering, a formal evaluation 
process developed for large-scale waste 
water treatment projects, identified $8 
million of savings. A generic fixation 



technology was developed that elimi- 
nated the need for expensive proprietary 
formulas, thereby expanding competi- 
tion among construction contractors 
and reducing costs. 

The Marathon Battery Superfund 
Site epitomizes the success of both 
federal and private sector partnerships 
with interagency partnerships. This 
project moved forward on budget and 
schedule, achieving technical goals and 
objectives. The remedial design success- 
fully applied innovative management, 
engineering and technological advances 
to clean up a hazardous waste site that 
threatened nearby residents and ecosys- 


Department of Defense, 
U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, 
Kansas City District and the 
New York District 

Environmental Protection Agency 

Malcolm Piniie, Inc. 

Point Marion 
Lock Cofferdam 

Point Marion, Pennsylvania 

The construction of an entirely new lock 
to replace the 70-year-old Point Marion 
lock and dam facility along the Monon- 
gahela River in Dunkard Township, 
Pennsylvania, had the potential to cause 
serious interruption of commercial river 
traffic. It also would have involved the 
excavation of more than a mile of river 
bank and required the relocation of 
portions of both a state highway and 
railroad tracks. 

The U.S. Army Coqjs of Engineers 
decided instead to integrate the new 
lock into the existing lock and dam 
system. The new lock is located ten feet 
landward and 1.3 feet below the existing 

lock's wall and foundations. To prevent 
collapse of the old wall and ensure its 
continued use during construction of 
the new system, project engineers used 
more than 500 large capacity 250-ton 
rock anchors to prevent the wall from 
sliding or overturning onto the excava- 
tion for the new lock, /vii extensive 
computer instrumentation system was 
implemented to continuously monitor 
the cofferdam for structural integrity. 
The innovative use of the anchor 
and monitoring systems advanced the 
knowledge and expertise of the Army 
Corps in river engineering while produc- 
ing significant cost savings. The innova- 
tive approach to design combined with 
site measurement ot performance proves 
an excellent model for future projects. 


Department of Defense, 

U.S. Army, ( !orps of 1 ogineers, 

Pittsburgh District 



United States 

Naval Academy Bridge 

Annapolis, Maryland 

The U.S. Naval Academy Bridge is the 
first successful major bridge design 
competition project to reach completion 
in the past 100 years. It is the culmina- 
tion of the extraordinary collaborative 
efforts of federal and state agencies to 
involve leaders in the bridge engineering 
field and to challenge them to think in 
technical, economic and aesthetic terms. 

The Federal Highway Administra- 
tion typically requires the preparation 
of at least two independent designs and 

construction bids for a bridge project 
of this magnitude. In view of the state's 
desire to implement the competition 
process, the Federal Highway Adminis- 
tration agreed to accept the winning 
concept from the competition and to 
forgo the requirement for alternative 

The planned bridge was required 
to carry Maryland Route 450 through 
the Naval Academy grounds and over 
the Severn River, serving as the eastern 
gateway to Maryland's historic capital of 
Annapolis. The site required a structure 
that would suitably respect and enhance 
the historic and scenic nature of the site 
and enrich the area environmentally 
while maintaining a 75-foot minimum 

The Maryland State Highway 
Administration and the Governor's 
Office of Art and Culture cosponsored 
an international design competition. 
The jury included four bridge engineers, 
an architect, a landscape architect, a 
sculptor, and representatives of environ- 
mental groups, historic groups and the 
local community. 


Department of Transportation, 
Federal Highway Administration, 
Maryland Division 

Maryland State Highway Administration 

Greiner, Inc. 

Solar Energy 
Research Facility 

Golden, Colorado 

The Solar Energy Research Facility 
was designed and built as a model to 
help realize the National Renewable 
Energy Laboratory's mission to develop 
renewable energy technologies, improve 
energy efficiency, advance related 
science and engineering, and facilitate 

Twelve energy-saving technologies 
are used in the facility, resulting in 
significant operating cost savings. 
These technologies include daylighting, 
energy-efficient fluorescent lighting, 
evaporative cooling, a trombe wall, and 
an exhaust heat recovery system. Some 
of these technologies will pay for them- 
selves in three years or less and represent 
a 30 percent reduction in operating 
costs when compared to a similar, 
conventionally equipped facility. 

The facility's design also emphasizes 
functionality and flexibility. It incorpo- 
rates three contiguous modules built 
along the natural contours of the land. 
Each module contains an office pod and 
a laboratory pod. The laboratories are 
uniform and could, within a given group, 
be easily used for other purposes. Of- 
fices and laboratories are clustered for 



maximum synergy and efficiency. The 
facility uses state-of-the-art safety fea- 
tures in building air management and 
utility efficiency. 

The philosophy behind the distinc- 
tive design and energy-conserving 
features is one of devising and deploying 
technologies in harmony with the natural 
balance of ecosystems. It is more than 
a cost-effective building with an innova- 
tive modular design. It is truly a labora- 
tory of the future - one that successfully 
achieves our nation's goals of a clean 
environment and energy efficiency. 


Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, 
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 

Anderson DeBartolo Pan 

Talmadge Memorial 
Bridge Replacement 

Savannah, Georgia 

The Talmadge Memorial Bridge 
Replacement Project demonstrates that 
a beautiful bridge ecjual to the best in the 
world can be designed and constructed 
using the most economical materials 
and pragmatic methods. The Federal 
Highway Administration, the Georgia 
Department of Transportation and a 
group of private design consultants 
engaged in a partnership to replace the 
old Talmadge Memorial Bridge with a 
bridge that would provide increased 
access by ship to the Port of Savannah 
without limiting access to the City of 
Savannah by automobile. 

A cable-stayed structure was deter- 
mined to be the most economical means 
of meeting functional requirements, 
aesthetic goals and site restrictions. This 
state-of-the-art structural system has 
rarely been employed in the United 
States. Formal design guidelines had 

not been established for such systems. 
The unique structural system employed 
precast, prestressed concrete members 
erected in segments, then post tensioned 
together. The completed bridge spans 
7,500 feet with a main navigational 
passage 1 .100 feet wide and 185 feet 
high. The new structure removes all 
piers from the river channel and pro- 
vides a modern four-lane highway into 
the city. 

The bridge meets stringent func- 
tional requirements through an inspiring 
level of mastery in a technology that is 
relatively new to this country. The bridge 
also acts as a powerful new gateway to 
Savannah, synthesizing the best in new 
construction technologies into a visually 
integrated form. 


Department of Transportation. 
Federal Highway Administration, 
Georgia Division 

Georgia Department of Transportation. 
Office of Bridge Design 

DRC Consultants. Inc. 

Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas 



Amtrak AMD- 103 
Passenger Diesel Locomotive 

The first locomotive specifically 
designed for passenger service in more 
than 40 years, the Amtrak AMD-103 
Passenger Diesel Locomotive incorpo- 
rates new safer)-, modeling, environmen- 
tal and operating features. Because the 
locomotive meets maximum weight 
allowances and universal clearances, it 
can operate on any route of the Amtrak 
national railway system. 

Using a lightweight, aerodynamic 
car body, the locomotive can reach a 
maximum speed of 1 03 miles per hour. 
Integrating the fuel storage tanks within 
a new structural system, the designers 
removed five tons of dead load and 
raised the height of the tanks from eight 
inches above the rail to 2 1 inches above 
the rail. By using the structural beams as 
walls, the thickness of tire fuel tanks was 
increased threefold. 

The diesel engine's new design 
increased horsepower by 33 percent 
with the same total weight as previous 

locomotives and, as a result, the Amtrak 
AMD-103 Passenger Diesel Locomotive 
has had an average of 20 percent savings 
in fuel consumption. As fuel costs 
contribute significantly to the cost of 
Amtrak service, the locomotive plays a 
significant role in reducing the growth 
rate of Amtrak" s federal operating grant. 
The design process included exten- 
sive user consultation. Officials within 
the Federal Railway Administration, the 
National Transportation Safety Board, 
the Association of American Railroads, 
the Transportation Research Board, 
and the Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers were all consulted to review 
the design for operating comfort, visibil- 
itv. crash worthiness, and occupational 


Department of Transportation. 
Federal Railroad Administration 

National Railroad Passenger Corporation. 
Office of Engineering/Mechanical Services 

General Electric Transportation Systems 

60K Loader Cab Interior 

Organizing and positioning more than 
100 interface items, such as switches, 
knobs, and dials, the 60K Loader Cab 
Interior meets the needs of a variety of 
operators in a tightly restricted work- 
space. The 60K. an aircraft loader built 
for the U.S. Air Force, required an ergo- 
nomic cab interior that was safe, com- 
fortable and capable of accomodating 
a variety of operators. .AH this had to 
be accomplished in a very small space 
while working within the restrictions 
of a predetermined cab size. 

The cab interior was developed 
during the Persian Gulf War. As a 
result, the designers had limited access 
to users and little time for field testing. 
They used interviews, photographs and 
videotapes to assess the problems with 
current aircraft loading equipment and 
built an ergonomic model in which all 
the controls could be easily adjusted. 
With input from both engineers and 
users, the designers made appropriate 
adjustments and moved readily from 
the preliminary model to full scale CAD 
drawings. The design team then incor- 
porated feedback from the manufacturer 
of the cab. 

This research and model based 
design process proved highly effective. 
For example, one of the interesting 
discoveries made during the research 
phase concerned visibility. .Although 
aircraft loaders traditionally had been 
designed to be operated while looking 
out tire front window (like a truck), the 
designers found that operators actually 
leaned out of the right window 70 per- 
cent of the time in order to monitor their 



G N 

loads and communicate with people on 
the cargo deck. Taking advantage of 
their ergonomic modeling process, the 
designers made the right wall of the 
prototype cab adjustable, enabling the 
team to determine which angle would be 
best for allowing the operator to lean out 
of the cab easily. 

The open, participatory product 
development process allowed the Air 
Force user-advocate, who had operated 
similar equipment for over 10 years, to 
influence product development. Because 
re-configurations were simple to make 
during the design phase, the team was 
able to produce a superior product that 
effectively and economically meets the 
needs of the Air Force. 


Department of Defense, U.S. Air Force, 
System Program Management 

Fitch, Inc. 

Teledyne Brown 

Backpack Personal 
Cooling System 

The Backpack Personal Cooling System 
is a lightweight, form fitting and low 
profile unit that resulted from a unique 
partnership between the design commu- 
nity and the federal government. Using 
technologies originally developed for 
astronauts, and modified for race car 
drivers, the system was designed for 
soldiers using chemical weapon en- 
sembles in the Persian Gulf, allowing 
them to stay cool in temperatures reach- 
ing 130 degrees. This new design, in 
turn, is being considered for several 
civilian applications. 

"Design driven", rather than 
"engineering driven", the 16.5 pound 
personal cooling system responds to a 
variety of human factors. Working with 
the project's federal program manager, 
the design team surveyed previous 
cooling system designs and field test 
data, incorporating new concepts such 
as mobile modularity into the backpack. 
Rather than having to return to a repair 
station, the modular cooling system 
allows the user to remove the battery 
or refrigeration section without tools 
in as little as ten seconds. In addition, 
the system is compact, easy to use and 
clean, and comfortably fits both men 
and women. 

The project fulfills two important 
goals for the Department of Defense. 
First, the Backpack Personal Cooling 
System contributes to the department's 
development of the most technologically 
well-equipped soldier in the world. 
Conflicts such as the Persian Gulf War, 
where the threat of chemical weapons 
existed, make this kind of equipment 
essential. Second, the project is aligned 

with government programs intended to 
move Department of Defense technolo- 
gies to the commercial sector. 

By selecting a design team with a 
unique background (one which had 
experience developing equipment for 
the racing community rather than the 
military), the Department of Defense 
created a situation that allowed it to take 
a fresh look at the problem. The result- 
ing solution is an excellent example of 
innovative and responsive design. 


The Department of Defense, 
U.S. Army, \nm Natick Research, 
Development and Engineering < lentei and 
the U.S. Army Soldier S> stems ( lommand 

Carlson Technology Incorporated 



G N 

Exhibition Catalogue for 
Carlos Collazo 1956-1990 

Exposicion Homenaje 
San Juan, Puerto Rico 

Carlos Collazo was a Puerto Rican 
painter, ceramist, and graphic designer 
who died of AIDS at the age of 34. 
Designed for people without access to 
the artist's work or his contribution to 
our society. Exhibition Catalogue for 
Carlos Collazo 1956-1990 Exposicion 
Homenaje is a unique contribution to 
the history- of art in Puerto Rico. 

Reflecting the social and artistic 
context of the artist, the catalogue 
incorporates traditional oral history 
with theoretical background. The initial 
investigation and documentation of 
the artist's work, as well as biographic 
material, had to be assembled by the 
designer. By making the investigation 
of the artist as thorough as possible, the 
catalogue can be used as a reference for 
further studies. 

Limited to an edition of 1,000 
copies, the catalogue utilizes a riveted 
binding to withstand intensive library 
use. By establishing different levels of 
discussion within the format, the text 
mirrors the artist's ability to work in 
different disciplines. To navigate the 
material, the designers have created a 
unique system of iconography. The 
chronological display of the artist's 
work also demonstrates the changes in 
Collazo's work after he was diagnosed 
as HIV positive. 

With a scarcity of books on Puerto 
Rican art, Exhibition Catalogue for 
Carlos Collazo 1956-1990 Exposicion 
Homenaje is an opportunity for the 
public to understand the artist's work 
and his relationship to our society. 


National Endowment for the Arts, 
Museum Program 

Instituto de Cultura Puertorriquena 

J TP # 

IRS Customer Service Guide 

The IRS Customer Service Guide is 
the culmination of extensive efforts by 
the IRS to develop an easy to use job aid 
for taxpayer assistors who answer mil- 
lions of taxpayer questions every year. 
The guide is technically accurate, easy 
to understand, and logically designed. 
Originally an unwieldy, ten-pound 
loose-leaf binder, the guide now has a 
professional appearance that belies its 
ability to withstand the duress of daily 
use. Before the guide was developed, 
the assistor had no standard tool from 
which to work. User participation was 
an essential part of the design process in 
the form of focus groups, special testing, 
surveys, and questionnaires. Changes in 
the guide's accent color reflect yearly 
revisions while the use of crack-and-peel 
sheets allows for updates during the 
year. Designed for optimum use in a 
small workspace, the guide uses typo- 
graphic and color coded indicators to 




help assistors provide timely, accurate 
and consistent answers to taxpayer 
questions. Limiting topics to one page 
wherever possible and providing 
enough space for the assistor to add 
comments expedites finding the correct 

The new guide has resulted in a 
more productive assistor, better public 
perception of the IRS, and more accu- 
rate and consistent answers. In 1988, 
the national accuracy rate for technical 
and procedural questions was 52 per- 
cent. By 1994, the accuracy rate had 
risen to 91 percent. In testimony before 
Congress, the General Accounting- 
Office credited the new guide for the 
improvement in accuracy. 


Department of the Treasury, 
Internal Revenue Service, 
Taxpayer Services 

Cox 8c Associates, Inc. 

Exploring Maps 
Teaching Packet 

Based on the history of cartography, the 
Exploring Maps Teaching Packet was 
designed to accompany the U.S. Geo- 
logical Survey's (USGS) traveling ex- 
hibit Visual Geography. The poster and 
teaching modules are interdisciplinary 
and can be used for high school classes 
in geography, English, science, math 
history and world studies. 

The two posters form a ten-foot 
timeline of maps from prehistoric times 
to the space age. The back of the posters 
includes two timelines: one with literary 
excerpts on mapping, exploration, and 
geography and a blank timeline that 
students can use to complete their own 
topics. Each panel on the back of the 
poster is in 8 1/2 x 1 1 format for easy 

One of the missions of the USGS 
National Mapping Division is to provide 

educational outreach that relates to earth 
science and mapping information. Stafl 
from the National Mapping Division 
advised on the content of the posters 
and teaching modules and organized the 
permissions necessary for image repro- 
duction. The maps were developed in 
consultation with geography teachers 
and the National Council for Geo- 
graphic Education. 

The federal government is one of the 
largest producers of maps in the world, 
and the art and science of cartography— 
a unique expression of culture— is now 
being recognized in exhibitions at muse- 
ums like the Smithsonian Institution 
and the Museum of Modern Art. 


Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological 
Survey, National Mapping Division and Maps 
Application Center 

Douglas | Gallagher 



History of American 
Agriculture Poster 

By organizing significant events in the 
development of American agriculture 
according to subject, A History of 
American Agriculture, 1776-1990, 
illustrates the evolution of U.S. agricul- 
ture in one accurate, attractive sweep. 
The poster, designed for both students 
and the general public, uses a timeline 
structure to present a decade-by-decade 
account of developments in areas such 
as economic cycles, agricultural trade, 
farm machinery, and technology. 

Based on a popular timeline poster 
published in 1976, the research infor- 
mation was assembled, edited and 
prepared by the Department of Agri- 
culture's Economic Research Service. 
The poster, which includes an analysis 
of agriculture, economic and social 
science information, depicts the intricate 

developments of American agricultural 

Given the problem of attracting the 
audience's attention while describing a 
number of subjects simultaneously, A 
History of American Agriculture, 1 776- 
1990, displays a vast amount of informa- 
tion clearly and logically. The designers, 
taking advantage of electronic design 
capabilities, expedited the project by 
using a working poster at 50 percent of 
the final size. 

Public response to the poster has 
been overwhelming, with sales surpass- 
ing those of all other Economic Research 
Service publications. The department's 
Agriculture in the Classroom program is 
adopting the poster for distribution to 
schools around the country. 


Department of Agriculture, 
Economic Research Service 

Chaparos Productions Ltd. 

A History of American Agriculture 1776-1990 

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Mission to Planet Earth 

The result of a collaboration between 
the Corcoran School of Art and the 
National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration (NASA), the Mission to Planet 
Earth poster series highlights environ- 
mentally important images of the Earth 
collected by both satellite platforms and 
the space shuttle. The posters use visu- 
ally striking images to examine global 
changes - El Nino, the ozone layer, the 
biosphere, global wanning, polar ice, 
clouds, and volcanoes - currently being 
discussed in earth science debates. 

Designed to communicate a visual 
understanding of the earth sciences 
through remote sensing data images, 
diagrams and text, the posters allow 
the user to view the issues surrounding 
a given problem in their entirety. While 
one side of the poster diagrams a core 
scientific concept, the other details why 
it is being studied from space. The 
poster format also allows the images to 

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be large enough to reveal important 

The project itself offered the rare 
opportunity for design students to work 
with scientists from both the Goddard 
Space Center and NASA headquarters 
to achieve a high standard in visual 
communication for the poster series. 
The posters bring technically complex 
information to the general public, 
explaining why it is so important to 
study the Earth from space. 


National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration, 
Mission to Planet Earth Office 

Corcoran School of Art, 
Graphic Design Department 

FDIC Employee Handbook 

Created in 1933, the Federal Deposit 
Insurance Corporation determines the 
safety and soundness of banks while 
solving the problems created when these 
institutions become insolvent. To meet 
the demands of their work, FDIC em- 
ployees must be familiar with how the 
corporation is organized and how it 
performs its various functions. The 
redesigned FDIC Employee Handbook 
focuses on these employee needs. 

The new handbook provides infor- 
mation about administrative and em- 
ployment issues for both new and vet- 
eran employees, helping them integrate 
into the FDIC work environment. 
Because FDIC employees are given a 
number of publications during any 
given year, it was essential to design a 
document that would be well organized 
and easy to use. Breaking the topics into 
individual section areas met this de- 
mand and improved the manual's role as 
a valuable reference guide. 

The poor reception of the previous 
version of the handbook led to a rethink- 
ing of the entire document. Using an 
album format and a distinct pallet of 
cool tints, the designer has created an 

engaging and inviting publication. By 
carefully editing the content of the 
manual, the FDIC staff has eliminated 
language that would date the material, 
making the handbook useful for many 
years. The design also facilitates any 
updates required by subsequent edi- 


Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 
Office of Corporate Services, Design Unit 



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m p I o y e e 




Modernism at Mid -Century: 

The Architecture of the 

United States Air Force Academy 

The design and construction of the 
U.S. Air Force Academy represents 
one of the federal government's largest 
and most important postwar architec- 
tural projects. A thorough and unique 
case study of the relationship between 
the federal government and the design 
community, Modernism at Mid-Century 
documents the complex story of the 
academy and how it relates to architec- 
tural, military and post war history. 

The layout, punctuated with 
photographs and drawings, provides 
a coherent and ordered format for the 
vast amount of information covered by 
the book's authors. The designers 
adopted a system of four typefaces set 
against a broad interior margin to give 
form to the material. Two-and three- 
page sidebars are set against a grey 


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background, making them easy to 
distinguish from the larger essays. 

The designers' visual acuity reflects 
their genuine interest in the topic. Be- 
cause so much of the book is a discus- 
sion of the international style, the layout 
had to provide a complementary means 
of presentation. While it would have 
been logical to adopt a graphic style 
contemporary with the International 
Style, the designers instead used a 
contemporary format which works with, 
rather than against, the interpretive 
voice of the text. 

Beyond the initial public reaction 
to the design of the academy, little has 
been written about this significant fed- 
eral design project. By presenting this 
material in a clear and balanced format, 
the designers have ensured that Modern- 
ism at Mid-Century will stand as an 
exceptional model for similar projects 
aimed at documenting our national 
design history. 

Prisoners off Time Report 

On January 30, 1991, Senator Jeff 
Bingaman of New Mexico introduced 
legislation to create a National Educa- 
tion Commission on Time and Learn- 
ing. On June 27, 1991, the Education 
Council Act of 1991 was signed into 
law. The following April, the commis- 
sion began the work which culminated 
in the visually compelling Prisoners of 
Time Report, which deals with the time 
constraints put on students as they 
learn. The designers created a report 
that goes beyond the standard white 
paper format typically used for this kind 
of document. By turning abstract con- 
cepts into effective visuals, the report 



Department of Defense, U.S. Air Force, 
U.S. Air Force Academy, 
Department of Civil Engineering 

The University of Chicago Press 




has reached a broad and diverse 

Taking advantage of current elec- 
tronic communication, imaging and 
printing technologies, the report was 
produced in an efficient, cost-effective 
manner that allowed the commission 
to understand exactly how the report 
would appear before it was sent to the 

The success of the report can be 
measured in the breadth of its circula- 
tion. Distributed throughout the United 
States, the report has also been sent to 
Canada, Germany and Japan. More than 
2,000 articles about the report have 
appeared since its publication, including 
articles in the New York Times the Wall 
Street Journal and The Washington 


Department of Education, National Education 
Commission on Time and Learning 

Carter/Cosgrove and Company 

Planetary Maps Poster 

Planetary mapping by remote sensing 
has played an integral role in the devel- 
opment of current environmental map- 
ping and global change studies, yet the 
planetary mapping program of the U.S. 
Geological Survey (USGS), which has 
its origins in the Apollo Space Program, 
remains obscure. By describing the 
types of planetary maps available from 
the USGS, the Planetary Maps Poster 
both outlines the history of planetary 
mapping and details current uses of 
remote sensing techniques. 

Working closely with the federal 
employees who served as managers, 
writers and editors for the project, the 
designers have created an information 
resource immediately appealing and 
educational. Complex information on 
subjects such as extraterrestrial topogra- 
phy and mapping the solar system are 

presented, demanding extreme care in 
layout and design. 

By using the history ofplanetar) 

exploration as a basis for the poster, the 
designers have made the materia] avail- 
able to a wider audience. The Planetary 
Maps Poster includes information on 
the technologies used in developing the 
maps, as well as describing the planets 
of our solar system in minute detail. 

Among the most stunning graphic 
design projects supported by the Ameri- 
can public, the USGS Planetary Maps 
display both technical sophistication 
and visual grandeur. The popularity 
of the poster has brought a relative!) 
unknown national resource to the atten- 
tion of the American public. 


Department of the Interior. 

U.S. Geological Survey, National Mapping 

Division and the Mapping Applications Center 

Chaparos Productions Ltd. 



A Design Resource 

New York, New York 

Founded in 1897, the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum, now the National Design 
Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, 
was created by the Hewitt sisters as a 
visual library for students and workers 
in the decorative arts. Since that time, 
the museum has become an important 
resource for designers and scholars 
throughout the world with nearly 
a quarter of a million objects in its 

From March 1991 to August 1992, 
the Cooper-Hewitt held a marathon 
exhibition, Cooper-Hewitt: A Design 
Resource, which displayed close to a 
thousand objects. The exhibition repre- 
sented four curatorial departments - 
Decorative Arts. Drawings and Prints, 
Textiles, and Wallcoverings, as well as 
the museum's library and archives, re- 
displaying a wealth of objects over an 
extended period of time, the exhibition 

narrated the history of the museum 
and demonstrated the significance of 
its collections. 

Using text panels at the entrance 
to each gallery, the curators presented 
the development of the philosophy 
behind the museum's collection. After 
concentrating on European ornamenta- 
tion and decoration, the museum's focus 
shifted to modernism, then to universal 
design and finally to the design process. 
The combination of objects and text in 
Cooper-Hewitt: A Design Resource 
revealed the changes in the way the 
museum chose objects over the course 
of nearly one hundred years and em- 
phasized its role as a national design 


Smithsonian Institution, 
Cooper-Hewitt. National Design Museum 

Drenttel Doyle Partners 

Kiss + Zwigard 

Revolution, Life and Labor: 

Soviet Porcelains (1918-1985) 
New York, New York 

The Ludmilla and Henry Shapiro 
collection of Soviet Propaganda porce- 
lains, housed at the Cooper-Hewitt. 
National Design Museum, is the only 
one of its kind in the United States. 
Consisting of 250 plates, vessels and 
figurines, the collection brilliantly docu- 
ments the major themes and motifs 
important to Soviet design between 
1917 and the mid 1980s. 

In 1992, the Cooper-Hewitt 
introduced the Shapiro collection to 
the American public with an exhibition, 
Revolution, Life, and Labor: Soviet 
Porcelains (1918-1985). As a compan- 
ion to the exhibition, a catalogue featur- 
ing some of the most important pieces 
from the collection was also published. 
The research for this catalogue was done 
by the exhibit's curator and colleagues 
in Russia and represents a significant 
cooperative effort in the study of Soviet 

Because the budget of the catalogue 
would not allow for every piece to be 
illustrated in color, the curator, designer, 
and printer worked closely together to 



design a catalogue, with a limited use 
of color, which conveys the strength 
and importance of the porcelains. An 
introductory essay provides historical 
background for the porcelains and 
discusses their artistic, social and 
political significance. 

The historic nature of the material 
in Revolution, Life, and Labor: Soviet 
Porcelains (1918-1985), its political 
significance, and its artistic strength are 
shown without compromise and reflect 
the achievement of everyone involved 
in the design of the catalogue. 


Smithsonian Institution, 
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 


Packaging the New: 

Design and the American Consumer 


New York, NY 

Examining the evolution of consumer 
culture in America, the Packaging 
the New: Design and the American 
Consumer 1925-1975 exhibition at 
the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design 
Museum provoked visitors to think 
about the objects they buy and why 
they buy them. The exhibition brought 
the relationship between the designer, 
advertiser and consumer into focus 
and explored the results of 40 years 
of consumer consumption in America. 
Beginning in the Great Depression, 
industrial designers quickly joined 
forces with manufacturers and advertis- 
ers to stimulate the economy. By intro- 
ducing new products which were made 
to entice consumers to buy their way to 
a better life, designers like Raymond 
Lowey, Walter Dowin Teague, Henry 
Dryfuss, Norman Bel Geddes and 
Donald Desky introduced style as the 
driving force behind consumerism. 

The exhibition, divided into galler- 
ies, took advantage of existing exhibi- 
tion cases and stock materials to eco- 
nomically create a space which related 
to the decade represented. Because the 
Cooper-Hewitt is located in a 1903 
neo-Georgian mansion, the designers 
had the additional challenge of configur- 
ing the spaces to prevent the elaborate 
woodwork and ornamentation of 
the mansion from competing with the 

Walking through the corridors 
of Packaging the New: Design and 
the American Consumer L925-1975, 
visitors had the opportunity to see how 
they participated in America's obsession 
with newness and examine the persua- 
sive power of design. 


Smithsonian Institution. 
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 

Alexander Isle) Design 

Boym Design Studio 



The Power of Maps 

New York, New York 

Demonstrating the importance of maps 
as a form of visual information design, 
the Power of Maps exhibition at the 
Cooper-Hewitt. National Design Mu- 
seum also revealed the particular points 
of view and specific interests behind the 
creation maps. By providing a critical 
reading of the map design process, the 
exhibition examined the way in which 
maps are constructed. 

The exhibition arranged more 
than 300 maps, ancient to modern, 
into thematic groups. By coordinating 
the maps with printed materials as well 
as a \ideo, computer mapping software 
and a Map Resource room, the curators 

were able to reinforce the exhibition's 
message. Current mapping projects 
were included to show how maps can 
be used to shape public opinion on 
environmental, health, and urban issues. 

By using a wide variety of maps and 
related materials, The Power of Maps 
appealed to a wide audience. The 
exhibition's achievement can be mea- 
sured not only in the media coverage 
and critical success but in the presenta- 
tion of an expanded version of the 
exhibition at the International Gallery 
of the Smithsonian Institution. 


Smithsonian Institution, 
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 


A Royal Gift: 

The 1862 Porcelain Jewel Cabinet 
New York, New York 

The goal of the exhibition A Royal Gift: 
The 1862 Porcelain Jewel Cabinet was 
to focus on one extraordinary object 
from the Cooper-Hewitt, National 
Design Museum's permanent collection. 
By inviting visitors to enjoy the aesthetic 
experience of the jewel cabinet and 
related objects, the curators presented 
a fascinating study of both the cabinet 
and the design process that produced it. 

The central object in the exhibition 
was a six-foot-tall jewelry cabinet made 
at the Sevres factory in Paris during the 
1820s. Presented by King Charles X 
of France as a state gift to King Francis I 
of the Two Sicilies, the cabinet is com- 
posed almost entirely of large painted 
porcelain plaques held in an ornate gilt- 
bronze framework. The exhibition also 
included 40 other objects, all made in 
Paris during the 1820s ranging from 



porcelain tablewares, silk textiles, wall- 
papers and fashion prints, to jewelry, 
buttons and fans. 

The exhibition focused on four main 
avenues of design exploration for the 
cabinet: Historic Context, Craftsman- 
ship, Function and Fashion, and Image 
and Interpretation. The cabinet and 
other objects were arranged thematically 
around these topics. A central, faceted 
kiosk presented introductory informa- 
tion using both text and images. 

A Royal Gift: The 1862 Porcelain 
Jewel Cabinet included a free handout 
composed of a post-card size box that 
opens to reveal six cards, each illustrat- 
ing a part of the cabinet on one side and 
a written description on the other. This 
type of small, inexpensive, in-house 
exhibition featuring the Cooper-Hewitt's 
collections serves as a model for future 


Smithsonian Institution, 
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 

Carbone Smolan Associates 

Mechanical Brides: 

Women and Machines 
from Home to Office 
New York, New York 

Mechanical Brides: Women and Ma- 
chines from Home to Office, an exhibi- 
tion at the Cooper-Hewitt, National 
Design Museum, critically examined 
the ways in which people use design to 
meet practical needs and create cultural 
identities. Linking the history of design 
and technology with contemporary 
research in cultural studies, women's 
history and sociology, the exhibition's 
thesis stated that seemingly neutral 
objects are central to the cultural defini- 
tion of women's roles. 

The curators of the exhibition were 
faced with the challenge of juxtaposing 
three-dimensional objects and media 
images to illustrate the story of women 
in the ideal American home and office. 
By examining design from the users' 
perspective rather than concentrating 
on production or aesthetic values, the 
curators reached a wide audience. 

The exhibition was divided into 
three basic sections: the home, the 
office, and the telephone which linked 
the two. By presenting the material in 
a concise manner and in a number of 
media, the displays provided a number 
ways for the visitors to enter the exhibit. 
Using the techniques of modern adver- 
tising and environmental graphics, the 
exhibition stimulated thought and 

Mechanical Brides: Women and 
Machines from I tome to ( HHce gave 
a vivid, accessible form to the body of 
feminist scholarship that lias been pro- 
duced on women, work, and design. 
By linking objects with media images 
and experiences of users, the exhibition 
demonstrated the cultural life of indus- 
trial design. 


Smithsonian Institution. 
Cooper-Hewitt. National Design Museum 

Boym Design Studio 

Design Writing Research 

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The Edge off the Millennium: 

An International Critique of 
Architecture. Urban Planning, 
Product and Communication Design 
New York, New York 

A compilation of 298 essays by archi- 
tects, designers, critics, philosophers, 
historians, and design consultants from 
around the world, The Edge of the Mil- 
lennium is a book based on the convic- 
tion that designers are accountable for 
the effects, messages, products and 
cities they design. The breath of experi- 
ence among the contributors provides 
a multidisciplinary cross-section of 
reflections on contemporary life. 

Developed out of a January 1992 
conference, the book asks what value the 
design professions will have in the next 
millennium. In the spirit of the National 
Endowment for the Arts Federal Design 
Improvement Program, the four day, 
intensively speculative, conference 

included a wide range observations. 
A close working relationship between 
the book's editor at the Cooper-Hewitt. 
National Design Museum and the de- 
signer resulted in a lively and engaging 
text that is visually stimulating and 
coherently structured. Each section 
begins with an analytical overview, 
and carefully chosen images comple- 
ment the text throughout the book. 

Enhancing the international influence 
of the Cooper-Hewitt, and anticipating 
many of the issues which will confront 
us at the turn of the century, The Edge 
of the Millennium stresses the impor- 
tance of design in shaping the civic 
realm, and has proven to be popular 
among students, design professionals, 
cultural historians and all those inter- 
ested in design. 


Smithsonian Institution, 
Cooper-Hewitt. National Design Museum 


United States 
Holocaust Memorial 
Museum Artifact Posters 

Washington, DC 

The Holocaust Memorial Museum's 
primary mission as a national educa- 
tional institution is to educate the 
American public about the history of 
the Holocaust and its implications. 
Using materials supplied by the 
museum, the U.S. Holocaust Memorial 
Museum Artifact Posters present a 
wealth of information on the compli- 
cated issues relating to the history of the 
Holocaust and resulting in an important 
new resource for study. 

Successful design is often the result 
of interdisciplinary collaboration. In 
this case, the project began with input 
from teachers as to what format would 
be most appropriate to present specific 
themes from the Holocaust. After the 
poster format was chosen, the designers 
worked closely with experts and 



researchers on the museum staff, allow- 
ing them to use the most appropriate 
and effective materials for the posters. 

The goal was to create materials that 
could supplement a fully developed 
curriculum. Designed for a broad range 
of students - from middle school to the 
college level - this set of nine posters 
provides unique background informa- 
tion on the Holocaust using artifacts, 
documents, and photographs from the 
museum collection. Additional materials 
include a set of caption cards and a 
teacher guide. Carefully designed to 
complement each other and promote 
student inquiry, the additional materials 
provide historical background, sugges- 
tions for further readings, and questions 
for classroom discussions. 

Through good graphic design, the 
message about the Holocaust and the 
resources of the museum are being made 
available to students across the country. 


Washington, DC 

Civen the mission of bringing a "better 
understanding of basic spider biology 
and spiders' indispensable role in main- 
taining our ecosystem" to the American 
public, the designers of the National 
Museum of Natural History's SPIDERS! 
exhibit faced a formidable challenge. 
Using visual and participatory design 
elements, they succeeded in creating a 
playful and dignified entreaty for spiders 
and their impact on the environment. 

Designed as a 5,500-square-foot 
traveling exhibit, SPIDERS! had to last 
through ten venues and withstand trans- 
portation by truck. The exhibit endured 
not only the demands of moving from 
site to site, but the traffic of 800,000 
visitors over the course of six months at 
the Museum of Natural History. 

The design team brought text, visu- 
als and interactive displays together in a 
meaningful way. While not overwhelm- 
ing to the average visitor, the scientific 
material was detailed in its presentation 
of the dangers spiders can pose to human 
beings, as well as to the harm caused by 
an unreasonable fear of these insects. 

The exhibit breaks with the tradi- 
tion of didactic natural history displays 
and presents its subject in an upbeat 
yet serious tone. The designers of 
SPIDERS! took special interest in 
appealing to younger visitors, and a 
companion "Spider Lab" - a staffed, 
hands-on exhibit area - was especially 
designed for children under the age 


Smithsonian Institution, 
Office of Exhibits Central 


United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 
Education Department 

Pat Taylor, Inc. 

Adina Conn 8c Associates 



Produce for Victory: 
Posters on the American 
Home Front, 1941-1945 

Designed for display in small rural 
communities. Produce for Victory: 
Posters on the American Home Front, 
1941-1945 was a response to the 
Congressional mandate to reach out 
to previously neglected audiences in 
America. The low cost, lightweight 
display is engaging, intellectually 
rewarding, and sets a new standard 
for traveling exhibits. 

Using design parameters developed 
by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service, the Smithsonian's 
Office of Exhibits Central created a 
display with the look of a Smithsonian 
product and the advantages of a trade- 
show exhibit. The show is durable, 
portable, and at the same time elegant 
and clean. 

The exhibit consists of 50 panels. 
55 connectors, and a banner - all of 
which travels in six, wheeled crates. 
Construction drawings - including 
isometric, plan and elevation views - 
instruct the exhibitor on how to install 
the displays. The graphics include color 
reproductions of original vintage post- 
ers, black-and-white photographs, and 
World War II objects. 

Produce for Victor)': Posters on 
the American Home Front. 1941-1945 
involved the exhibitors in all aspects of 
the project, from the choice of topic to 
its final design. The result is a blueprint 
for future exhibits in the same format, 
three of which are currently being devel- 
oped by the Smithsonian's Office of 
Exhibits Central. 


Smithsonian Institution. 
Office of Exhibits Central 

Publication Design at the 
National Gallery off Art 

Washington, DC 

In helping to cam- out the mission of 
the National Gallery of Art and support 
the gallery's programs, the publications 
of the gallery disseminate information to 
the general public, provide faithful color 
reproduction of artists' work, contribute 
to scholarly research, and serve as a 
record of the gallery's temporary exhi- 
bitions and permanent collections. 
"Publication Design at the National 
Gallery of Art: A Selection" documents 
how the gallery has committed itself to 
the advancement of design standards. 

Within the restrictions of tight 
deadlines and limited budgets, the 
gallery produces twenty to twenty-five 
major publications every year. A sample 
taken from works printed during the last 
four years illustrates the gallery's com- 
mitment to producing printed materials 
that are appropriate to the works of art 



G N 

they exhibit. Carefully considering each 
element of the design as it relates to a 
specific group of objects, the gallery 
brings together words and images in 
a clear and interesting manner. 

Constantly striving to improve the 
publication process, the gallery has 
significantly updated electronic publish- 
ing capabilities, resulting in increased 
efficiency, improved quality control, 
and significant cost savings. Publications 
continue to be completed on time and 

within budget. The success of the 
gallery's work can be measured La high 
catalogue sales, excellent teacher evalua- 
tions, positive reviews from the press, 
and the gallery's many visitors. 


National Gallery of Art, Editors Office 

Design Pur 

Bruce Campbell Design 

Three Communication Design 

Grafik Communications, Ltd. 



Arizona Interstate 
Rest Area Program 

Recognizing that the rest areas along 
Arizona's interstate highways had 
reached the end of their life cycle of 
providing safe, comfortable and relaxing 
settings for travelers, the Arizona De- 
partment of Transportation invited a 
team of landscape architects, artists, 
architects, engineers and tourism ex- 
perts to create unique, user-friendly 

While traveler safety and security 
were paramount concerns due to the 
remote location of the sites and minimiz- 
ing the costs of maintenance and oppor- 
tunities for vandalism was crucial, the 
state wanted the rest areas also to serve 
as "tourism ambassadors." 

Today, information displays and 
welcome centers at the sites allow the 
traveler to learn more about the area 
and make plans to visit attractions. The 

designers also drew upon the remote 
desert landscape to demonstrate innova- 
tive approaches to sustainable and 
responsive design, such as passive cool- 
ing systems and arid site landscaping. 
To ensure safety, the bathrooms are 
visible from the parking areas as well as 
to the highway patrol. 

Traveler polls at the new rest areas 
confirm that the designers have achieved 
a unique balance that incorporates 
aesthetic appeal, functional practicality, 
and environmental sensitivity. In addi- 
tion, they have helped to improve tour- 
ism in the state. 


Department of Transportation, 

Federal Highway Administration, Region 9 

Arizona Department of Transportation, 
Roadside Development Section 

Cella Barr Associates 

Charles Robert Schiffner Architects Ltd. 

Enid A. Haupt Garden 

Washington, DC 

The Smithsonian Institution's Enid A. 
Haupt Garden ties together three dis- 
parate historic landmark buildings - the 
Smithsonian Castle, the Victorian Arts 
and Industries Building, and the Neo- 
classical Freer Gallery of Art. All are 
linked by a 4.2-acre site, which also 
includes the entrance pavilions to the 
underground quadrangle complex 
housing the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery 
of Asian Art, National Museum of Afri- 
can Art, and S. Dillon Ripley Center. 
The design creates a composition of 
delightful garden rooms, each with a 
distinct image and character. Together, 
they form a sophisticated public garden 
that is intimately scaled and well 
detailed, in the tradition of grand estate 
gardens of America and Europe. 

Formerly a parking lot, the garden 
achieves a remarkable reconciliation 
of opposing and conflicting elements 
through a unifying theme of symmetry, 
balance, texture, and proportion. The 
plantings in each area reflect the differ- 
ent typological origins of the garden 



rooms - a brick-walked Victorian gar- 
den leading from the street to the castle, 
a peaceful Oriental garden with moon 
gates and circular island next to the 
Sackler, and a lively Islamic garden with 
bubbling fountains adjacent to the 
African Art museum. 

Utilitarian structures scattered 
around the site, such as stair towers, 
large skylights, exhaust vents and a 
loading dock, are hidden behind care- 
fully arranged plantings and garden 

The garden exemplifies the ability 
of landscape architects to connect and 
enhance disparate visual elements 
through unifying forms and elements. 


General Services Administration, 
National Capital Region 

Smithsonian Institution, 

Office of Design and Construction 

Shepley Bulfinch Richardson and Abbott 

Sasaki Associates 

Dorst Campground 

Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Park. 

The reconstruction of this 1930s camp- 
ground and picnic area to accommodate 
contemporary camping styles was ac- 
complished economically and with great 
sensitivity to its history. Built by the 
Civilian Conservation Corps during the 
Great Depression, Dorst Campground 
was rebuilt to mitigate the impact of 
development on the park's Giant Forest, 
protecting the treasured giant Sequoia 
trees. The number of campsites was 
increased by 80, to a total of 240, with 
nearly half of the sites reserved for 
recreation vehicles. Despite this enor- 
mous growth, the site does not feel 
crowded due to carefully placed native 
stone retaining walls. 

Natural materials were used in a 
functional and aesthetic manner. Circu- 
lation was improved to reduce vehicle 
impact on vegetation and camps. Since 
the integrity of the natural vegetation 
was a major concern, erosion control 
blankets were used on slopes and drain- 
age courses rather than seeding with 
commercial grasses. The alignment of 
new roads enhance drainage and the 
visual quality of the roadscape. A new 
bridge of rustic design recalls an earlier 
time when only natural materials were 
used, out of necessity, in remote parks. 

Members of the design team, all of 
whom were experienced campers, ably 
demonstrated their appreciation for the 
past, their knowledge of campers' aes- 
thetic and physical needs, and technical 

knowledge in this project The project 

demonstrates that the National Park 
Service can upgrade the function and 
utility of existing park facilities for a 
growing population without losing the 
qualities that made this environment 
memorable for previous generations. 


Department of the Interior. 
National Park Service, 
Denver Service Center, and the 
Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Park 

Department of Transportation. 
Federal Highway Administration 



Hirshhorn Museum Plaza 

Washington. DC 

Working with a complex site that had 
become badly worn and bad never 
successfully addressed architect Gordon 
Bunshaft's 1974 circular Hirshhorn 
Museum, the Smithsonian Institution 
hired a landscape architect to create an 
urban oasis. The 2.7-acre plaza is now 
a pleasant shady spot for weary visitors 
to contemplate the museum's renowned 
sculpture collection while also being 
more technically functional. 

With a clear sense of respect for the 
integrity of the original design, the 
designer retained the symmetry and 
geometric focus of the site, including 
Bunshaft's circular fountain in the 
plaza's center. Key to the success of the 
design was the decision to add greenery 
to the outside quadrants. Areas of plant- 
ing and low walls subdivide spaces into 
smaller units to create "rooms" for the 
sculpture, representing a total shift in 
the concept of how visitors use the 

space. These garden areas are defined 
by rows of trees, lawns, gende slopes, 
benches and granite rises that also 
provide seating. A granite paved walk- 
way circumnavigates the site, making 
the sculptures accessible to visitors in 

The plaza actually serves as the 
roof for the museum's lower level. The 
structural, mechanical, waterproofing, 
drainage and grading work, which was 
crucial to the performance of the build- 
ing, remains invisible to plaza users. 

Today, die Hirshhorn plaza grace- 
fully and sensitively relates to the mu- 
seum while immensely improving the 
relationship between visitors and the 
monumental building. 


Smithsonian Institution, 
Office of Design and Construction 
and the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden 

James Urban, ASLA 


Kenilworth Marsh Restoration 

Washington, DC 

Kenilworth Marsh is the last remaining 
freshwater tidal wetland in the District 
of Columbia. Massive urban develop- 
ment, storm water runoff, sedimentation 
and years of neglect had reduced the 
once expansive marsh to barren flats at 
low tide. The marsh clearly needed to 
be restored and kept navigable while 
transforming the mud flats into function- 
ing wetlands. 

Restoration of the marsh was accom- 
plished through intergovernmental 
cooperation between the National Park 
Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Army Coqis of Engineers, Metropolitan 
Washington Council of Governments, 
and District of Columbia Department 
of Public Works. 

Wetlands form an integral part of 
the watershed's self-cleansing system. 
They serve as biological filters for the 
silt, nutrients and pollutants that wash 
down from thousands of sources. In 
addition, they help reduce riverbank 
erosion and flood damage, improve 
water quality, and provide essential 
habitat for fish and wildlife. One mea- 
sure of the success of this project is the 



dramatic increase in marsh flora and 
fauna. Before the restoration, visitors 
could count the number of snowy egrets 
on one hand, today they number close 
to 100. 

A major innovation was the first 
application in the nation of water tubes 
and straw bales to contain the dredged 
material. These appropriate low-tech- 
nology solutions kept the costs low and 
avoided the use of heavy equipment that 
might disturb the habitat. Canals were 
cut into the restored marsh to enhance 
tidal water flow and allow canoes to 
navigate through the area. 


Department of Defense, U.S. Army, 
Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District 

Metropolitan Washington 
Council of Governments 

Biohabitats, Inc. 

Cottrell Engineering Corporation 

Chris Athanas 8c Associates, Inc. 

Sentinel Bridge 

Yosemite National Park, California 

Tasteful and restrained defines the 
design approach of this functional, 
unobtrusive bridge. This structure 
enhances its setting and introduces an 
attractive man-made element that inter- 
acts with the spectacular views of the 
Yosemite Valley. Sentinel Bridge spans 
the Merced River with a shallow 
posttensioned concrete arch. The arch 
enables visitors to view the landscape 
uninterrupted by piers while providing 
a dignified sense of crossing. Granite 
facing echoes the natural materials of 
the mountains. 

The various approaches to crossing 
the bridge and the parking areas are 
integral parts of the design. Whether on 
foot, horseback, bicycle or automobile, 

the traveler can conveniend) cross the 
river, reveling in one of the grandest 

views of Half Dome. The extra-wide 
sidewalks on either side of the bridge 
enable photographers, pedestrians and 
w luelchair users to reflect on the natural 
beauty of the site without impeding the 
passage of others. The parking area is 
partially screened from the road. Large 
granite boulders located throughout the 
area help direct pedestrian traffic and 
provide seating while visitors wait lor 
the shuttle bus. 

This project clearly illustrates that 
good infrastructure design can enhance 
the experience of the park for visitors. 


Department of the Interior. National Park 
Service, Denver Service Center 

Department of Transportation. Federal Highway 



Loess Hills 

Scenic Byway Program 

Western Iowa 

The Loess Hills region of Western Iowa 
is a unique geologic land form compris- 
ing 640,000 acres and spanning seven 
counties. What began as a local attempt 
to boost tourism and economic develop- 
ment in the region turned into a nation- 
ally significant program that involved 
hundreds of volunteers from the area 
and led to tremendous tangible and 
intangible results. The former is demon- 
strated by a nearly 250 percent increase 
in tourism, and the development of a 
new organization - The Loess Hills 
Alliance - to preserve and protect the 
future of the region. The latter is best 
characterized by the new-found pride 
residents have discovered, thanks to 
their role in surveying and researching 
the area. 

The project literally began from 
scratch since the state did not have a 
scenic byways program. Staff from the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture's Soil 
Conservation Service created a program 

that relied heavily on the participants of 
local residents. The SCS developed an 
innovative scenic route selection process 
specifically tailored to rural Iowa. The 
process used techniques such as visual 
resource inventories, overlay mapping, 
public polling, and computer visual 
simulation. Volunteers w T ere trained to 
collect data on potential routes. Com- 
mercial sendees were inventoried along 
these routes to determine the suitability 
to serve visitors. 

During the project, more than 140 
volunteers logged over 1.100 hours and 
hundreds of miles on their own vehicles. 
Fresh from their new-found apprecia- 
tion of their environment, residents 
undertook a large-scale landscape re- 
source study that inventoried the natu- 
ral, cultural and historic resources of the 
entire area. 

The result is a model program 
establishing scenic byways based on 
citizen involvement. With strong volun- 
teer participation throughout the pro- 
cess, the project ensured that residents 
would be the best ambassadors for their 
land, setting the stage for implementa- 
tion and management of the region's 
future planning and design. 

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Department of Agriculture. 

Natural Resources Conservation Service. 

Iowa State Office and the 

Midwest National Technical Center 

National Endowment for the Arts, 
Design Program 

Golden Hills Resource Conservation 
and Development 



Sepulveda Basin, 
Lake Balboa Park and 
Wildlife Area 

Los Angeles, California 

Sepulveda Basin, Lake Balboa Park and 
Wildlife Area has sensitively balanced 
the needs of an urban populace for 
recreation facilities and a wildlife habitat 
while fulfilling its original role as a vital 
unit in a flood control plan in the Los 
Angeles County drainage area. Created 
in 1941 by the Army Corps of Engineers 
for Los Angeles County flood control, 
the Sepulveda Dam and Reservoir has 
taken on many other functions as the 
region's population soared in the post- 
war years. Approximately two-thirds of 
the 2,100-acre site is leased to the city 
Department of Recreation and Parks, 
which maintains its parks, golf course 
and play fields. Lake Balboa Park and 
the Wildlife Area was designed to meet 
the needs of an urban population of 
about 1.5 million which previously had 
litde access to open space. 

The objectives of the designers for 
Lake Balboa Park included: to preserve 
views, use native plants to form natural 
areas, create mixed use areas that would 
complement the recreation lake, block 
distracting views of nearby streets 
through the use of earth mounds, and 
create a natural appearance for the lake. 
As a result, a 26-acre fishing and boating 

lake, trails, picnic areas and a children's 
play area were created for the enjoyment 
of area residents. All the landscaping 
and recreational features were designed 
to withstand possible floods. 

The wildlife area - with its large 
pond, oak woodland and native grass- 
lands - is a habitat for more than 200 
varieties of local and migrator) birds. 
Trails created around the lake offer 
viewing blinds and open benches for 
viewing the migratory' water fowl in and 
around the pond. Incorporation of 
native plant materials, combined with 
innovative water handling treatment 
strategies, has resulted in increased 
numbers and varieties of wildlife. In 
addition to creating a wildlife sanctuary, 

the project established an experiential 
learning environment for visitors. 

The lake and recreation area has 
proved to be an attractive and popular 
destination for area residents. A result 
of a partnership between city and 
county agencies with the Army Coq>s. 
Lake Balboa Park and Wildlife Area 
has greatly enhanced the community's 
enjoyment without sacrificing its 
ecological purpose. 


Department of Defense. U.S. Army. 
Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District 

Brockmeier Consulting Engineers, Int. 






Augusta Canal Master Plan 

Augusta. Georgia 

The Augusta Canal system winds its 
way through a wilderness corridor. 
developing three separate branches that 
traverse historic neighborhoods and 
urban landscapes before flowing back 
into die Savannah River next to 
Augusta's historic downtown area. 
The canal master plan identifies actions 
to preserve and interpret the endan- 
gered canal and its related resources. 

The process to create the plan was 
a catalyst for the entire City of Augusta, 
bringing together previously divisive 
factions with the unified vision of a 
revitalized community. At the outset of 
the study, significant polarization and 
mistrust divided the conservationists, 
private developers, and public agencies. 
Moving from confrontation to consen- 
sus building was a major defining aspect 
of the plan. 

The planning process made the 
citizens and leaders of Augusta aware of 
die central role they would have to play 
in implementing the plan. Using the 
city's heritage to create a strong vision 
for the future. Augusta citizens demon- 
strated that they could create a third life 
for their city through the canal, just as 
their forefathers did in the 1840s when 
the canal was conceived as a transporta- 
tion corridor and again in the 1870s 
when the canal was enlarged to accom- 
modate post Civil War industrialization. 

Residents have gained new amenities, 
recreational opportunities, and revital- 
ization of their neighborhoods while 
preservationists have seen historic 
structures saved through reuse, and 
conservationists have secured critical 
natural settings. In addition, educators 
have new teaching environments and 
property owners have realized increased 


Department of the Interior. 
National Park Service/SERO 

CityDesign Collaborative. Inc. 

The Augusta Canal Authority 

The Office of ThomasJ. Martin 

Peter H. Hand Associates. Inc. 

W. R. Toole Engineers. Inc. 

Bi -State Development 
Agency/Arts in Transit 

St. Louis. Missouri 

Arts in Transit was established to help 
design St. Louis's new 18-mile light rail 
system. A team of six visual artists were 
brought in to work with Metro Link's 
architects and engineers to design the 
infrastructure of the system. The team's 
objective was not to decorate spaces but 
to develop a comprehensive and coher- 
ent system that would be visually appeal- 
ing within the existing construction 
budget. The result is an innovative 
public works project as well as a collabo- 
rative work of public art. 

Design goals included developing 
a composition of related components, 
creating a sense of dynamism through 
changeable elements, and using ver- 
nacular forms and materials. Solutions 
include unique bridge piers, unconven- 
tional passenger shelters for outdoor 
stations, underground tunnel stations 
that maintain the character of the his- 
toric space, and preservation of original 
architectural remnants. Stations share 



design qualities such as the curve in- 
spired by the Mississippi River and the 
Gateway Arch. 

Built along a railroad right-of-way, 
Metro Link is the first light rail system to 
reuse existing infrastructure extensively 
as an integral part of its design. It travels 
through historic, industrial, residential 
and commercial neighborhoods, and 
even runs across the Mississippi using 
the historic Ads Bridge. The LaClede's 
Landing Station incorporates old brick 
walls whose arched windows were 
opened to allow views of the Gateway 
Arch and Mississippi River. 


Department of Transportation, 

Federal Transit Administration, Region VII 

National Endowment for the Arts, 
Visual Arts Program 

Bi-State Development Agency 
Arts in Transit 
Sverdrup Corporation 
Kennedy/Associates/ Architects, Inc. 
Booker Associates, Inc. 
Kuhlmann Design Group 
Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. 
LS Transit Systems, Inc. 
Todd Williams and Billie Tsien 
Austin Tao and Associates 

Fort Belvoir Master Plan 

Fort Belvoir, Virginia 

Fort Belvoir's mission has changed 
substantially in recent years. What 
started as an engineer training center has 
evolved into a regional, multimission 
center for the U. S. Army. The master 
plan was undertaken to guide the fort's 
managers in achieving its new, broader 

Located on the Potomac River in a 
rapidly growing area outside Washing- 
ton, DC, Fort Belvoir is the largest single 
tract of land controlled by a single owner 
in Fairfax County. Considerable effort 
was made to promote the participation of 
all entities that would be affected by the 
plan. These included Fort Belvoir resi- 
dents, military officials, two county and 
one city government, as well as the area's 
commuter rail organization. Interviews 
and charrettes were conducted to discuss 
environmental, utility, commercial, 
transportation, and quality of life issues. 
The plan identifies eight separate mis- 
sions: military, administrative, logistics 
support, recreation, education, housing, 
military community support, and envi- 
ronmental stewardship. 

Among the unique issues addressed 
by the plan was the preservation of the 
historic view corridor from George 
Washington's home, Mount Vernon. 
The plan also took into account environ- 
mental issues related to the Chesapeake 
Bay. Environmental overlays and other 
constraint analyses were digitized over 
up-to-date existing base mapping, pro- 
viding efficient visualization and handling 
of large quantities of diverse information. 

The Army received unanimous 
approval to implement its master plan, 
giving the post clear guidelines for its 
land use, including traffic and utility 

programs for the next 20 years. The Fori 
Belvoir Long flange Plan is a model for 
military planning. Its exemplary level 
lit participation coupled with its com- 
prehensiveness present a logical course 
of action to manage the development of 
land, facilities, resources and infrastruc- 
ture for this and other complex military 


Department of Defense, U.S. Army, 
Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District and 
the Fort Belvoir Directorate of Public Works 

VVoolpert Consultants. Alexandria 
Woolperl ( lonsultants, ( Ihariotte 
Woolperl Consultants, Dayton 



Historic Family Quarters 
Preservation Program 

U.S. Army Military District 
of Washington, DC 

Many U.S. military bases were estab- 
lished before World War I and contain 
numerous types of historic structures. 
Historic base housing is often seen as a 
nuisance by military personnel because 
of high upkeep costs, numerous techni- 
cal problems, and demanding compli- 
ance procedures. The high cost of 
maintaining these structures led the 
Department of Defense to develop the 
Historic Family Quarters Preservation 
Program. This comprehensive manage- 
ment program for the maintenance and 
repair of historic military family quarters 
is recognized for balancing historic 
preservation goals with the ongoing 
functional needs of housing for military 

As one of the earliest preservation 
initiatives of the Defense Department, 
this program is a model for preserving 
the historical resources of military 
installations. Using three locations 
within the Military District of Washing- 
ton, a task force developed a set of 

stewardship standards for exterior and 
interior treatments that comply with the 
Secretary of Interior's Standards for 
Rehabilitation. They also produced a 
set of guidebooks providing direction 
on the repair or replacement of specific 
components from lighting fixtures to 
roofing. Since most historic military 
housing was built from standardized 
plans, many identical quarters exist on 
military bases across the country, mak- 
ing the guidebooks applicable to at least 
48 installations with the same types of 

Another critical component of the 
program was the development of a 
Maintenance Management Plan for the 
quarters. The plan prioritizes mainte- 
nance tasks and recommends preventive 
maintenance procedures that extend the 
useful life of building materials and 
reduce the possibility of sudden system 


Department of Defense, U.S. Army, 
Military District of Washington 

Hanbury Evans Newill Vlattas & Company 

National Law Enforcement 
Officers Memorial 

Washington, DC 

Graceful and elegant are the words 
most often used to describe the National 
Law Enforcement Officers Memorial in 
Washington, DC. Located in Judiciary 
Square, the memorial is surrounded by 
large historic buildings. Rather than 
competing with the massive Italian 
Renaissance style National Building 
Museum or the classical judicial build- 
ings, the memorial creates unity and 
context where once there was none. 

Unlike most memorials, which 
commemorate specific events or persons, 
this is an ongoing memorial created to 
honor future, as well as past, fallen 
officers. Their names are inscribed on 
gently curving low stone walls that 
envelop the square. Befitting a living 
memorial, the site is also a park with 
pergolas, benches, reflecting pool, and 
a variety of seasonal and perennial 
plantings. The memorial is free from 
heavy architectural structures which 
might intrude upon the sight lines and 



D E S 

G N 

compete with the buildings that so 
beautifully frame the space. 

The location over a Metrorail station 
required that the design integrate those 
existing structures. The elevators were, 
therefore, incorporated into the pergola, 
and the air relief vents were repositioned 
within the landscaped lawn areas. 

Working with six federal and eight 
local agencies and review bodies, the 
architect successfully navigated the maze 
of reviews and approvals required for 
Washington memorials. The design 
contains a number of innovative fea- 
tures. For example, the pergola struc- 
tures have acute angles on the upper 
bars to deter roosting pigeons. 

This project is a fine example of how 
neglected urban spaces can, and should, 
be used for civic purposes. 


Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service, 
National Capital Region 

National Law Enforcement Officers 
Memorial Fund 

Davis Buckley, Architects and Planners 

James Urban, ASLA 

Raymond Kaskey, FAIA 

Petersen Air Ferce Base 
Comprehensive Plan 

Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado 

Located in a rapidly growing area out- 
side Colorado Springs, Peterson Air 
Force base occupies 1,278 acres and is 
home to the U.S. Space Command and 
the Air Force Space Command. The 
comprehensive plan was undertaken to 
establish a baseline planning document 
that would guide the facility as it pre- 
pares for the future and copes with its 
ongoing growth. 

Faced with a tight deadline since 
earlier work on a previous plan had been 
stopped, the designers of the new Base 
Comprehensive Plan (BCP) established 
an in-house management team that 
provided a flexible process for managing 
the base's growth and integrated its 
planning efforts with those of the sur- 
rounding communities. The team iden- 
tified four basic planning principles for 
the long-term BCP effort: developing 
a team concept, establishing a project 
management plan, applying partnering 
techniques and incorporating total 
quality management to document devel- 
opment. This teamwork process was 
highly successful, providing easier access 
to military and civilian leaders and 
establishing a broader base of expertise 
and contacts. 

The plan's environmental design 
guidelines were a pioneering effort for 
the Air Force. Since there were no 
existing models, Peterson Air Force Base 
created one. The base was in urgent 
need of this design control tool to bring 
visual and functional order to its envi- 
ronment, including landscape treat- 
ment, signage, lighting, street furnish- 
ings and waste management features. 

Using computer mapping through- 
out the project was also an unprec- 
edented and innovative outcome of 
the planning process, providing a pow- 
erful interactive medium to maintain 
an up-to-date planning document/ 
database. This has been integrated with 
other data sources, leading to safer and 
more cost-effective facility placements 
and allowing faster identification of 
natural and man-made constraints. 


Department of Defense. U.S. Air Force. 
Peterson Air Force Base. 2 1 st Space Wing. 
2 1 st Support Group and 
21st Civil Engineer Squadron 

Higginbothani Briggs &: VssO< iatea 

Leigh, Scott Ji; Clean . Inc. 

(i ( > 



Presidio General 
Management Plan 

San Francisco, California 

Presiding over one of the most outstand- 
ing vistas in this country, the Presidio 
is at a turning point in its history. The 
1995 closure of the military base that 
has been located on that site for 220 
years set in motion a major planning 
effort by the National Park Service, 
which will take over its management. 
In addition to its magnificent view of 
the Golden Gate and San Francisco 
Bay, the 1,480 acre area contains an 
enormous wealth of cultural, natural 
and recreational resources. 

The Presidio planning process has 
been one of the most open and partici- 
patory endeavors ever undertaken by 
the National Park Service. It has in- 
volved individuals throughout the 
country and enlisted many groups not 

traditionally involved in park planning. 
The planning team employed vision 
workshops, newsletters, concept work- 
books, and numerous public meetings 
as part of the public review process. 
Among the challenges faced by the 
planners were determining appropriate 
treatments for the vast number of his- 
toric resources contributing to the 
Presidio's national historic landmark 
status, transportation planning in an 
area where traffic congestion is already 
a serious concern, and developing a 
strategy to meet operational and finan- 
cial challenges of implementation. 
The resulting plan breaks from 
traditional park planning, calling for 
innovative approaches to management 
and prescribing a bold vision for the 
Presidio. The entire site is to become 
a model of sustainability and innovative 
technology. It will be the setting for 
programs that promote stewardship of 
global resources, provide youth with 
skills and commitment to public service, 
and explore methods to improve the 
health of people and the planet. In 
short, it will be a model urban national 
park for the 21st century. 


Department of the Interior, 

National Park Service, Denver Service Center 

and the Presidio Project Office 

Redesign of Diggs Town 

Norfolk, Virginia 

Like many of this country's public 
housing projects, Diggs Town was 
plagued with the worst of society's 
problems: unemployment, crime, drugs 
and decay. The 1950s-era complex in 
Norfolk, Virginia, leveraged public 
housing modernization funds from the 
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban 
Development (HUD) to transform a 
"project" into a neighborhood. 

HUD and city government officials 
worked with the design team and Diggs 
Town residents to create cohesion, 
bolster safety and foster a sense of com- 
munity pride. Principles of traditional 
American urbanism were applied to this 
distressed complex. Limited funds 
supported minimal structural changes, 
yet they had enormous physical and 
psychological effects on the complex 
and its residents. Front porches were 
added to the low-rise, multifamily units, 
encouraging residents to communicate 
and get to know each other. Fences 
secured private spaces, giving residents 
control over the outdoor areas that 
previously had been claimed by gangs. 
And new, small-scale streets provide 
parking, public security and the pride 
of having a "street address." 

Residents also worked with city and 
federal officials to establish a drug elimi- 
nation program and create over 20 jobs 
with the project contractor, as well as 
plan early childhood education and 
recreation programs. In fact, the resi- 
dents were key to defining the problems 
and establishing the process that led to 




the redesign of Diggs Town. "Village 
meetings" with the designers and gov- 
ernment managers were conducted 
regularly in resident back yards over six 
months to create the plan. 

The process at Diggs Town demon- 
strates how the involvement of residents 
and creative design solutions can make 
"neighborhoods" out of "projects." 


Department of Housing and 

Urban Development. Virginia State Office 

Norfolk Redevelopment 
and Housing Authority 

Diggs Town Tenant 
Management Corporation 

UDA Architects 

CMSS Architects 

Staples Street Station 

Corpus Christi, Texas 

Staples Street Station is in downtown 
Corpus Christi, Texas, amidst the city's 
municipal complex. It is also the city's 
most heavily used bus transfer point. 
Before the station was built, transit 
passengers were required to rush across 
busy traffic intersections to make their 
connections at five separate locations 
and to wait for their buses on congested 
sidewalks. The new station consolidates 
the stops, allowing passengers to alight 
from one bus and immediately board 
the next. 

The structure's design is in the 
Spanish Colonial style, with golden-tan 
stucco and arches, complementing the 
city hall building across the street. The 
station has a friendly, welcoming feel 
that is enhanced by the cheerful decor. 
Following a number of citizen and 
business-leader meetings organized by 
the Regional Transit Authority to dis- 
cuss the development of the station, it 
became clear that residents wanted the 
station to reflect the community. To 
accomplish this, the local arts center 

created a means for residents literally to 
make their mark on the new station. The 
1 .500 ceramic tiles that grace the station 
were designed and painted by residents. 

Personal safety also was a high prior- 
ity so the designers minimized structural 
elements to create a large open space 
and increased the normal level of light- 
ing. Customer comfort was accommo- 
dated with many seating areas, maxi- 
mum shade, water fountains, and con- 
cise information displays. The design 
even includes spaces for street vendors 
who sell refreshments to transit riders. 

This bus station demonstrates the 
value of a well-planned outreach effort - 
a friendly, functional, attractive and 
cost-effective public space that benefits 
the entire city. 


Department of Transportation. 

Federal Transit Administration. Region VI 

Corpus Christi Regional 
Transportation Authority 

Creative Arts Center 

Projects for Public Spacf 

Aloe Tile Works 

Progressive Structures. Inc. 



Visual Clutter: 

D Utility systems located underground. 

D Improved circulation/channelization by Introduction o( bermed median. 

a Visual distractions screened/site choracter Improved by landscape design. 

D Scale ot parking reduced by planted islands/fingers'. 

O Pavement graphics used where possible. 

TRADOC Communities 
of Excellence Program 

The U.S. Army Training and 
Doctrine Command 
Fort Monroe, Virginia 

The United States Army Training and 
Doctrine Command (TRADOC) is 
made up ofl 8 installations and several 
Army service schools whose mission is 
to provide basic and advanced training 
to officers and enlisted personnel. These 
installations provide more than just 
training. They are communities, not 
unlike cities and towns, and have a 
direct link to the morale, welfare and 
sense of well-being of its residents. 
Recognizing growing disrepair on the 
bases and lack of investment in their 
surroundings by residents, TRADOC 
established its Communities of Excel- 
lence Program to improve the quality of 
life and urban environments of the 

The program faced the challenge of 
integrating community involvement and 
stewardship practices where they were 
not normally recognized or promoted. 

The implementation approach was 
designed to reach a broad audience of 
military personnel and "non-designers." 
An annual training program outlined 
guidance by which installations pre- 
pared for annual evaluations. Manuals 
that graphically depict design standards 
and illustrate various levels of design 
quality were produced for a wide variety 
of facilities, including transient quarters, 
commissaries, and outdoor training 

This program has facilitated an 
awareness of urban planning and identi- 
fied continuous community and quality' 
improvements as an integral aspect of 
planning on all TRADOC installations. 
The program has raised expectations 
command-wide and created informed, 
demanding and involved citizenry who 
have become part of a TRADOC 
community's planning process. 


Department of Defense, U.S. Army. 
Training and Doctrine Command 

E.L. Hamm and Associates, Inc. 

Williams. Tazewell and Associates, Inc. 

Teaching with Historic Places, 
National Park Service 

Our nation's historic places are invalu- 
able teaching tools, but until recendy, 
there was not a systematic way for teach- 
ers across the country to use them in 
conjunction with existing lesson plans. 
Recognizing the potential to provide 
students with an understanding of the 
nation's cultural diversity and historic 
traditions, to help communities appreci- 
ate and protect their unique character, 
and to foster stewardship among young 
people and citizen groups to assist in 
protecting historic resources, Teaching 
with Historic Places was created joindy 
by the National Park Service's National 
Register of Historic Places and the 
National Trust for Historic Preservation. 

Lesson plans for Teaching With 
Historic Places had to be integrated into 
existing course structures, so extensive 
research was conducted on the various 
opportunities to add a preservation 
component to curricula in subjects such 
as history, social studies and geography. 
A team of nationally recognized preser- 
vationists and educators recommended 
development of an ongoing series of 

4, ■ ■» 

I WO ' 



classroom-ready lesson plans, educa- 
tional kits consisting of several themati- 
cally-linked lesson plans, audiovisual 
materials, a teacher guide, and a techni- 
cal assistance kit on how to teach with 
historic places. Teacher training oppor- 
tunities are offered several times a year to 
disseminate the program's methodology. 
The lesson plans are based on prop- 
erties listed on the National Register 
using an array of maps, readings, visual 
documents and activities to develop and 
strengthen critical and analytical think- 
ing skills. At least one activity in every 
lesson plan leads the students into their 
own community to find and research 
similar themes and historic places. 
Teaching with Historic Places provides 
a national model that establishes a mutu- 
ally beneficial partnership between 
educators and preservationists, making 
students more aware of their cultural 


Department of the Interior, National Park 
Service, National Register of Historic Places/ 
Interagency Resources Division 

National Trust for Historic Preservation 

Daydream Design 

Walnut Street Bridge 

Chattanooga, Tennessee 

Built in 1891 as an engineering marvel, 
the Walnut Street Bridge today is a 
testament to the citizens of Chattanooga 
and their commitment to preserving 
their past while creating a vibrant new 
public space. Deemed unsafe when 
closed in 1978, the bridge faced demoli- 
tion until concerned city residents 
stepped in and had it placed on the 
National Register of Historic Places. 
Popular support grew as plans unfolded 
to transform the bridge into a rather 
unusual park. 

Today's traffic on the bridge is not 
from automobiles, but that of pedestri- 
ans, cyclists, readers, kite-flyers and 
roller-skaters - to name a few. The 
bridge is fully accessible to the wheel- 
chair bound, with careful attention given 
to connecting the roadbed and cantile- 
vered sidewalks with transitional ramps. 
Benches, planters and new lighting 
encourage recreation and leisure activi- 

With funds from the Federal High- 
way Administration, the engineers 
developed a posttensioned cable system 
for the project that has become a model 
for restoring historic bridges. Its virtual 
invisibility has minimal impact on the 
span's historic character, yet makes it 
stronger than when originally built. In 

homage to the original bridge, a wooden 
deck was created and all existing orna- 
mental railings were restored. The 
engineers also used an innovative steel 
grit blasting technique to recycle the grit 
after separating the toxic lead, saving 
hundreds of thousands of dollars in 
landfill costs for contaminated sand blast 
material. The Walnut Street Bridge is 
now a key element in the city's river 
front revitalization. 


Department of Transportation. 
Federal Highway Administration, 
Tennessee Division 

Garnet Chapin Architects 

A. G. Lichtenstein & Associates, Inc. 



Architect of the Capitol 

Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary- Building, 
Washington, DC, p. 33 

Department of Agriculture 

A History of American Agriculture, 
U76-1990, p.48 

Loess Hills Scenic Byway Program, 
Western Iowa, p. 64 

Department of Commerce 

Economic Development Administration 

* Focus: HOPE Center for Advanced 
Technologies, Detroit, Michigan, p.8 

Department of Defense 

Department of the Air Force 

60K Loader Cab Interior, p. 44 

Comprehensive Plan for Peterson 
Air Force Base, Colorado, p. 69 

Modernism at Mid-Century: 

The Architecture of the United States 

Air Force Academy, p. 50 

Department of the Army 

Backpack Personal Cooling System, p. 45 

Environmental River Engineering 
on the Mississippi, p. 40 

Fort Belvoir Real Property Master Plan. 
Fort Belvoir, Virginia, p. 67 

Kenilworth Marsh Restoration, 
Anacostia River Maintenance Dredging, 
Washington, DC./?. 62 

Marathon Battery Superfund Site Remedial 
Design, Cold Spring, New York. p. 40 

Military District of Washington 
Historic Familv\Quarters Preservation 
Program, Washington, DC, p. 68 

Point Marion Lock Cofferdam. 
Point Marion, Pennsylvania, p. 41 

Sepulveda Basin: Lake Balboa Park 

&c Wildlife Area, Los Angeles, California, p. 65 

TRADOC Communities of Excellence 
Program. Fort Monroe, Virginia, p. 72 

* Recipient of a Presidential Award 
for Design Excellence 

Department of Education 

Prisoners of Time Report, p. 50 

Department of Energy 

Solar Energy Research Facility, 
Golden, Colorado, p. 42 

Department of Health 
and Human Services 

Food and Drug Administration 

* FDA Food Label Design, p. 24 

Department of Housing 
and Urban Development 

Daybreak Grove and Sunrise Place, 
Escondido, California, p. 29 

Lucerne Gardens, Boston, Massachusetts, p. 31 

Redesign of Diggs Town, Norfolk, Virginia. 

Department of the Interior 

Geological Survey 

Exploring Maps Teaching Packet, p. 47 
Planetary Maps Poster, p. 51 

National Park Service 

Augusta Canal Master Plan, 
Augusta, Georgia, p. 66 

Barataria Environmental Education Center, 
Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and 
Preserve. New Orleans. Louisiana, p. 28 

Dorst Campground, Sequoia/Kings Canyon 
National Park, Three Rivers, California, p. 61 

* The Double Arch Bridge of the Natchez Trace 
Parkway, Franklin, Tennessee, p. 16 

Lowell Performance Pavilion. 
Lowell, Massachusetts, p. 30 

National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial, 
Washington, DC, p. 68 

Presidio General Management Plan. 
San Francisco, California, p. 70 

Rehabilitation of the Old State House, 
Boston, Massachusetts, p. 36 

Sentinel Bridge. Yosemite National 
Park, California, p. 74 

Teaching with Historic Places, 
Washington, DC, p. 72 

Washington Monument Entry Level 
Lobby Renovation. Washington, DC, p. 37 

Women's Rights National Historical Park, 
Wesleyan Chapel Block. Seneca Falls, 
New York,/). 35 

Department of State 

Office of Foreign Building Operations 

The Architectural Advisory Board, 
Washington, DC, p. 28 

United States Embassy Chancery, 
Muscat, Oman, p. 34 

Department of Transportation 

Federal Highway Administration 

Arizona Interstate Rest Area Program, p. 60 

Dorst Campground, Sequoia/Kings Canyon 
National Park. Three Rivers, California, p. 61 

* The Double Arch Bridge of the Natchez Trace 
Parkway, Franklin, Tennessee, p. 16 

* The Interstate 90 Completion Project. 
Seatde, Washington, p. 18 

United States Naval Academy Bridge, 
Annapolis, Maryland, p. 42 

* River Relocation Project, 
Providence, Rhode Island, p. 20 

Sentinel Bridge. Yosemite National Park. 
California, p. 74 

Talmadge Memorial Bridge 
Replacement, Savannah, Georgia, p. 43 

Walnut Street Bridge, Chattanooga, 
Tennessee, p. 73 

Federal Railroad Administration 

Amtrack AMD-103 Diesel Locomotive, p. 44 

Federal Transit Administration 

Bi-State Development Agency/Arts in Transit, 
St. Louis, Missouri, p. 66 

Staples Street Station, Corpus Christi, 
Texas, p. 71 

Department of the Treasury 

Internal Revenue Service 

IRS Customer Service Guide, p. 46 



Environmental Protection Agency 

Marathon Battery Superfund Site 

Remedial Design, Cold Spring, New York, p. 40 

Federal Deposit 
Insurance Corporation 

FDIC Employee Handbook, p. 49 

Federal Emergency 
Management Agency 

Spreckels Temple of Music, 
San Francisco, California, p. 36 

General Services Administration 

* Byron White United States Courthouse, 
Denver, Colorado, p. 10 

Enid A. Haupt Garden, Washington, DC, p. 60 

Independence Square, Washington, DC, p. 30 

Oakland Federal Building, Oakland, 
California, p. 32 

U.S. Border Station, International Falls, 
Minnesota, p. 34 

National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration 

Independence Square, Washington, DC, p. 30 
Mission to Planet Earth Posters, p. 48 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Bi-State Development Agency/ Arts 
in Transit, St. Louis, Missouri, p. 66 

Carlos Collazo 1956-1990 Exposicion 
Homenaje, San Juan, Puerto Rico, p. 46 

Loess Hills Scenic Byway Program, 
Western Iowa, p. 64 

National Gallery of Art 

Publication Design at the 

National Gallery of Art: A Selection, p. 58 

Exhibition Design at the National Gallery of 
Art: A Selection, October 1991- May 1994, 
p. 38 

Smithsonian Institution 

Enid A. Haupt Garden, Washington, DC, p. 60 

Produce for Victory: Posters on the American 
Home Front, 1941- 1945, p.58 

SPIDERS!, p.57 

* Cooper-Hewitt, 

National Design Museum, p. 22 

The Cooper-Hewitt Collections: 
A Design Resource, p. 52 

The Edge of the Millennium: 
An International Critique of Architecture, 
Urban Planning, Product and Communication 
Design, New York, New York, p. 56 

Mechanical Brides: Women and 
Machines from Home to Office, p. 55 

Packaging the New: Design and the American 
Consumer 1925-1975, />.55 

The Power of Maps, p. 54 

Revolution, Life, and Labor: 
Soviet Porcelains (1918-1985),/). 52 

A Royal Gift: The 1826 Porcelain Jewel Cabinet, 
p. 54 

Freer Gallery of Art 

and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery 

Freer Gallery of Art: 

Restoration and Reinstallation, p. 38 

Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden 

Hirshhorn Museum Plaza Renovation 
and Landscaping, p. 62 

National Museum 

of the American Indian 

Master Facilities Program for the 
National Museum of the American Indian, 
Washington, DC, p. 32 

National Postal Museum 

National Postal Museum, Washington, DC, p. 39 

U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum 

* U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, p. 12 

* U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum 
Permanent Exhibition,/). 14 

U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum 
Artifact Posters, p. 56 

U.S. Postal Service 

National Postal Museum, Washington. DC, p.37 



This publication was produced under 
a cooperative agreement between 
Community Ventures, Forrest City, NC, 
and the Design Program of the 
Nadonal Endowment for the Arts. 

Senior Editor and Writer 
Thomas B. Grooms 

Judith Binder 
Lily Leiva 


Ned Cramer 
Susan Hyatt 
A. Benno Schmidt 
Thomas Walton 


Cox 8c Associates, Inc. 

FOR ^0 T H E 


Presidential Design Awards 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Design Program 

The Nancy Hanks Center 

1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW 

Washington, DC 20506 




Page 37 

Page 56 

Robert Creamer 

Ken Pelka (top) 

Page 8-9 

United States 

Balthazar Korab 

Page 38 

Holocaust Memorial Museum 

Freer Gallery of Art 

(bottom right) 

Page 10-11 

(center left and top) 

Michael Barber Architecture 

National Gallery of Art 

Page 57 

(bottom right) 

United States 

Page 12-13 

Holocaust Memorial Museum 

Timothy Hursley 

Page 39 

(top left) 

Page 1 4 

National Gallery of Art 
(top left) 

Chip Clark (bottom right) 

Jeff Goldberg (bottom left) 

Hedrich Blessing 

Page 58 

United States Holocaust 

(bottom right) 

Paul Sewell (bottom left) 

Memorial Museum (top right) 

Page 40 

Page 60 

Page 15 

Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. 

Mark Boisclair (bottom left) 

Timothy Hursley 

(top right) 

Robert C. Lautman (top right) 

Page 18-19 

Page 41 

Page 61 

Washington State Department 

Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. 

Robert C. Lautman 

of Transportation 

(bottom left) 

(bottom left) 

Page 22 

Page 42 

Page 62 

Ken Pelka (bottom left) 

Marvin D. Blimline (top left) 

Celia Pearson (bottom left) 

Billjacobson (bottom center) 

Bob Harr (bottom right) 

Ken Pelka (top right) 

Page 65 

Page 43 


Page 23 

Bob Harr (top left) 


Page 66 

Page 44 

Steven Ginn (top right) 

Page 29 

Bob Johnston 

Davids Killory (bottom) 

Page 67 

Page 45 

Robert Pettus (bottom left) 

Page 30 

Dennis Carlson (top right) 

Jock Potde (center left) 

Page 68 

Steve Rosenthal (top right) 

Page 46 

Greg Staley (top right) 

Larry Ruggeri (top right) 

Page 31 

Page 69 

Steve Rosenthal (center left) 

Page 47 

Eric Taylor (bottom left) 

CWC Builders/J.D. Sloan 

Photo Link 

Higginbotham/Briggs 8c 

(bottom right) 

Page 48 

Associates (top) 

Page 32 

Jeffrey Wilkes (bottom) 

Page 70 

Richard Barnes (top left) 

Corcoran School of Art 

Marti Knapp (top left) 

Smithsonian Institution 

(top right) 

Charles Kennard (bottom) 

(bottom right) 

Page 49 

Page 71 

Page 33 

Paul Kennedy (bottom left) 

UDA Architects (top left - 

Smithsonian Institution 

Sam Collicchio (top) 

top and bottom) 

(top left) 

Ron Randolf Photography 

Jeff Goldberg (bottom right) 

Page 51 

Jeffrey Wilkes (bottom center) 


Page 34 

Page 72 

Peter Kerze (bottom left) 

Page 52 

Beth Boland (bottom right) 

Jeff Goldberg (top right) 

Billjacobson (bottom left) 

John Parnell (top right) 

Page 73 

Page 35 

Bedi Boland (top left) 

Carl Stein 

Page 53 

Garnet Chapin (bottom center 

John Parnell (bottom left) 

and right) 

Page 36 

Howard J. Wong (top left) 

Page 54 

Peter Vanderwarker 

Ken Pelka (center left) 

(bottom right) 



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